Weather Factors - Review for Test
Terms in this set (52)
a form of energy that travel through the vacuum of space
the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
wavelengths that are longer than red light; not visible but can be felt as heat
invisible form of energy with wavelengths shorter than violet light; causes sunburn, skin cancer and eye damage
reflection of light in all directions; gases and dust particles reflect light in all directions
the process by which gases hold heat in the air
the average amount of energy of motion of each particle of a substance
total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
thin glass tube with a bulb on one end filled with a liquid which is usually mercury or colored alcohol
transfer of thermal energy from a hotter object to a cooler one
direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that is touching
transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
the upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air
horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
measures wind speed
increase cooling of wind
winds that blow over short distances
local breeze that blows over an ocean or lake
flow of air from land to a body of water
winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
the way Earth's rotation make winds curve
distance from the equator measured in degrees
bands of high-speed winds
movement of water between the atmosphere and Earth's surface
the process by which water molecules and liquid water escape into the air as water vapor
measure of the amount of water vapor in the air
percentage of water vapor that is actually in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a particular temperature.
instrument that measures relative humidity
molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid in this process
the temperature at which condensation begins
wispy, feathery clouds
clouds that look like round, fluffy piles of cotton
clouds that form in flat layers
any form of water that falls from the clouds and reaches the Earth's surface
long periods of unusually low precipitation
one method used to modify precipitation; tiny crystals of silver iodide and dry ice are sprinkled into clouds from airplanes
an open-ended can or tube that collects rainfall
How does energy travel to Earth from the sun?
as electromagnetic waves
What happens to sunlight when it passes through the atmosphere?
sunlight is absorbed by the land and water and changed into heat
What happens to the Earth's surface when it is heated by the sun's energy?
it radiates most of the energy back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation and gets absorbed by gases in the air. This heats the gases and creates a blanket around Earth.
How is air temperature measured?
It is measured with a thermometer, which tells how hot or cold the air is.
How is heat transferred?
by radiation, conduction, and convection
What layer of the atmosphere is heated?
What causes wind?
differences in air pressure
What causes local and global winds?
the unequal heating of Earth's surface within a small area
What are major global wind belts?
trade winds, polar easterlies, and the prevailing westerlies
What instrument measures relative humidity?
How are clouds formed?
They form when water vapor in the air condenses to form liquid water or ice crystals
What are three main types of clouds?
cirrus, cumulus and stratus
What are clouds classified by?
What are five common types of precipitation?
rain, hail, snow, sleet, freezing rain
What two instruments were given in the book that scientists use to measure precipitaion?
rain gauges and measuring sticks
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