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29 terms

respiration and excretory systems

Prentice Hall Science Explorer Human Biology and Health Chapter 4
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respiration
The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.
cilia
tiny hairlike extensions that move together in a sweeping motion
pharynx
the throat; part of both the respiratory and digestive systems
trachea
The windpipe; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system.
bronchi
the passages that direct air into the lungs
lungs
main organs of the respiratory system
alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
diaphragm
Large dome shaped muscle that helps with breathing
larynx
the voice box, located in the top part of the trachea, underneath the epiglottis
vocal cords
Folds of connective tissue that stretch across the opening of the larynx and produce a person's voice
tar
a thick, sticky, dark fluid produced when tobacco burns
carbon monoxide
A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas in cigarette smoke that passes through the lungs into the blood
nicotine
the addictive drug found in tobacco that speeds the heartbeat, raises blood pressure, and causes dizziness and upset stomach
addiction
a physical dependence on a substance
bronchitis
An irritation of the breathing passages in which the small passages become narrower than normal and may be clogged with mucus.
emphysema
A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties.
lung cancer
a lung disease in which cells in the lungs grow out of control
excretion
the process by which wastes are removed from the body
urea
a chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins
kidney
a major organ of the excretory system that eliminates urea, excess water, and other materials from the body.
urine
a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials
ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
a sack-like muscular organ that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body.
urethra
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
nephron
Small filtering structure found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine
atherosclerosis
buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
passive smoking
when people involuntarily inhale the smoke from other people's cigarettes
homeostasis
the ability of a living thing to keep conditions inside its body constant
organs that excrete
kidneys, lung, skin, and liver