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Prentice Hall Science Explorer Human Biology and Health Chapter 4


The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.


tiny hairlike extensions that move together in a sweeping motion


the throat; part of both the respiratory and digestive systems


The windpipe; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system.


the passages that direct air into the lungs


main organs of the respiratory system


tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood


Large dome shaped muscle that helps with breathing


the voice box, located in the top part of the trachea, underneath the epiglottis

vocal cords

Folds of connective tissue that stretch across the opening of the larynx and produce a person's voice


a thick, sticky, dark fluid produced when tobacco burns

carbon monoxide

A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas in cigarette smoke that passes through the lungs into the blood


the addictive drug found in tobacco that speeds the heartbeat, raises blood pressure, and causes dizziness and upset stomach


a physical dependence on a substance


An irritation of the breathing passages in which the small passages become narrower than normal and may be clogged with mucus.


A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties.

lung cancer

a lung disease in which cells in the lungs grow out of control


the process by which wastes are removed from the body


a chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins


a major organ of the excretory system that eliminates urea, excess water, and other materials from the body.


a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials


tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

a sack-like muscular organ that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body.


tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body


Small filtering structure found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine


buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries

passive smoking

when people involuntarily inhale the smoke from other people's cigarettes


the ability of a living thing to keep conditions inside its body constant

organs that excrete

kidneys, lung, skin, and liver

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