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Follicular Cyst

unruptured graafian follicle, reproductive age group, most common mass

Corpus luteum cyst

persistent corpus luteum, delayed regression of corpus luteum, seen in pregnancy

Chocolate cyst

Endometriosis of ovary

Breast mass over 35


breast mass under 35



most common malignant ovarian tumor, makes hCG, LDH, associated with Turners. same as seminoma in men


tumor of trophoblastic tissue, develop in pregnancy, increased risk with hytidaform moles. Mets to lung, makes hCG, gyncomastia in men (hCG is LH analogue)


2 or 3 germ layer cells, in young girls

Yolk sac tumor

in girls and boys under 4. Makes AFP. Schiller-Duval bodies (resemble glomeruli)

Serous cystadenoma

epithelial tumor, bilateral, benign. Makes CA125.

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

malignant, psamomma bodies, bilateral, CA125


Ovarian tumor, Meig's syndrome - ovarian fibroma, ascites, pleural effusion

Granulosa cell tumor

secretes estrogen. endometrial hyperplasia, post-menopausal women, sex-cord tumor

Krukenberg tumor

GI malignancy with mets to ovary, signet cells

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina

DES exposure in utero


benign breast tumor, women under 25. small mobile mass, responds to estrogen

Intraductal papilloma

benign breast tumor, serous/bloody nipple discharge.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

malignant breast tumor, arises from ductal hyperplasia, no basement membrane penetration

Invasive ductal

rock-hard mass, malignant, arises from major ducts, women over 50, most common and worst 76% of breast cancer

Invasive lobular

malignant, bulls-eye appearance of cells, bilateral, check other breast in same spot


ductal, squeeze nipple and liquid goes out, ERB2 association


Peau d'orange, lymphatic invasion with blockage of lymph, lymphedema, poor prognosis

Paget's disease

Eczematous patches on nipple, extension of DCIS into lactiferous ducts and skin of nipple

Fibrocystic disease

painful breast lumps in women from age 25 to menopause, benign, fluctuate with menstrual cycle

Acute mastitis

breast abscess during breast feeding from S. aureus, greenish brown discharge

Fat necrosis

benign painless lumps forming after injury, may retract skin


most common testicular cancer, homogenous enlargement, age 15-35, radiosensitive

Yolk sac

under 4 years old, produces AFP, makes schiller duval bodies (like glomeruli)

Testicular lymphoma

lymphoma involvement of testicles, older men

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