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Kingdom Animalia Marineeeeeeeeee
Terms in this set (72)
What animals belong to Phylum Porifera?
Give three reasons that sponges are different than all other animals
They have no gastrula stage, they exhibit less cell specialization than most animals, and they have no true tissues or organs
What type of symmetry to sponges have?
What does it mean when it is said that sponges are sessile?
They attach themselves firmly to a surface and do not move
What is the name of the opening in the top of the sponge?
What are the names and functions of the 2 types of specialized cells in sponges?
1. Choanocyte- digests nutrients for the sponge and pulls water through the sponge
2. Amoebocyte- crawl around the sponge and spread the nutrients and transport sperm to egg and transports waste
What is the skeleton of a sponge made out of?
Soft spongin or hard spicules(made of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide)
How do sponges feed? What do they eat?
They filter feed plankton and matter from water
Describe how sponges reproduce asexually.
Produce internal buds called gemmules that grow into new sponges when conditions are right
Describe how sponges reproduce sexually
sperm are released from 1 sponge and enter the pores of another sponge. The sperm is then carried to an egg by amoebocyte and is fertilized
Because sponges can reproduce both sexully and asexually, they are called ___________
Why are Cnidarians considered to be more complex than sponges?
Their cells are organized into tissues, they have few organs, and they have symmetry
What type of body symmetry do Cnidarians have?
Give some examples of Cnidarians
Freshwater Hydra, Portuguese Manowar(colonial), Box Jellyfish, Lionsmane Jellyfish, Sea anemone, Coral Ployp
Describe the 2 body forms of a Cnidarian
Bell-shaped (like medusa which needs to swim) or Vase-shaped (polyp which is sessile)
Medusa::_________::mouth faces bottom
jellyfish; mouth faces up
Describe the 2 layers of Cnidarians and what lies between these layers
Epidermis is outerlayer. Gastrodermis is inner layer. There is a jelly-like messoglea substance between
What is the gut of a Cnidarian called?
Describe how a cnidarian defends itself
Use stinging cells called cnidocytes
Describe how a Cnidarian feeds
tentacles capture small animals with their nematocysts and paralyze them with poison. The tentacles then push the food through the gastrovascular cavity. Then, enzymes break up the prey an cells absorb the nutrients. Waste comes out of the mouth
What type of nervous system does a cnidarian have?
Describe the life cycle of a common jellyfish
adults release sperm and egg into water and they are fertilized. The zygote divides many times to form a blastula, the blastula develops into a ciliated larva called a planula, planula attaches to ground and becomes a polyp by developing a mouth and tentacles, polyp grows, polyp forms a stack of medusae, medusae detach and develop jellyfish
Give the complete classification of the earthworm beginning with the kingdom.
Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Annelida, Class Oligochaeta, Family Lumbricidae, Genus Lumbricus, Species terrestris
What does the word annelida refer to?
a series of rings or segments that make up the bodies of the members of this phylum
Describe reproduction in an earthworm.
Sperm from one worm travel along the sperm grooves to the seminal receptacles of another worm. Fertilization of the eggs takes place outside the body as the cocoon moves forward over the body, picking up the eggs of one worm and the sperm of its mate.
forms egg capsules or cocoons
female genital pore
used to pass the eggs out of the ovary and into the rest of the rest of the body
male genital pore
used to pass the sperm out of the ovary and into the rest of the rest of the body
used to move sperm to the seminal recepacles
holds sperm that are about to be fertilized
Describe the circulatory system of the earthworm.
The organs of the circulatory system are five aortic arches. Circulatory fluids travel from the arches through the ventral blood vessel to capillary beds in the body. The fluids then collect in the dorsal blood vessel and reenter the aortic arches.
What is the name of the pumping organ of an earthworm?
aortic arches (a pair of hearts)
What does an earthworm eat?
soil and organic matter
List the organs of the earthworm's digestive system in order and give the function of each.
mouth takes in the food and is the beginning of the digestive tract
pharynx takes food mixture from the mouth and transports it to the esophagus
esophagus is a passageway between the pharynx and the crop
crop stores food temporarily
gizzard grinds up the food mixture that the worm has ingested
intestine digests and absorbs food
rectum and anus used for soil particles and undigested organic matter to pass out of
What organs make up the nervous system of the earthworm?
the ventral nerve cord, a series of ganglia, nerve collar, nerve impulses, and a ganglion
Describe the organs that control excretion.
excretory functions are controlled by nephridia, which are found in pairs in each body segment, they appear as tiny white fibers on the dorsal body wall
Describe respiration in an earthworm.
gases are exchanged between the circulatory system and the environment through the moist skin
What are the 3 germ layers which worms have
endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
What kind of symmetry do worms have?
Worms have _________ which means their nervous system is concentrated on their anterior end and have a development of a brain
Flatworms are _____ and some examples are ________
acoelemates; planarian, fluke, tapeworm
Roundworms are _____ and some examples are ________
pseudocoelemates; hookworm and ascaris
Segmented worms are _____ and some examples are ___________
coelomates; earthworm, leech, and polychete
Which Phylum do segemted worms belong to?
Name 3 characteristics of phylum annelida
have true body cavities (coelomates), their bodies are segmented, and they have setae and/or parapodia
what are setae? parapodia?
sete are small hair-like bristles used for movement
parapodia and fleshy appendages
What tools did we use during dissection?
t-pins, scalpal, probe, forceps, scissors
tissues that hold segmentation internally
Which animals exhibit radial symmetry?
cnidarians and adult echinoderms
which animals are segmented?
anthropods, annelids, and chordates
Which animals lack cephalization
sponges, cnidarias, and adult echinoderms
Which animal is organized only at a cellular level
Which 2 animals are deuterostomes
echinoderms and chordates
What do sponges lack that all other invertebrates have?
Prior to developing 3 germ layers, what kind of symmetry is exhibited by invertebrates? post-develpoment?
Only invertebrates to have deuterostome development?
Sponges of members of phylum ______. They are the ______ members of Kingdom Animalia and are the ________ of all multicellular organisms.
Porifera; oldest; simplest
The phylum cnidaria includes what 5 animal types
Jellyfish, sea fan, sea anemone, hydra, coral
Cnidarians are _____, soft-bodied, _________, __________-symmetrical animals with __________arranged in circles around their mouths. They are the simplest to have body
________ and _________ tissues.
aquatic; carnivorous; radially; stinging tentacles; symmetry; specialized
Phylum Anthropoda include what 4 animal types?
spiders, centipedes, insects, and crusteceans
Anthropod means_________. The bodies of Anthropods are divided into _______. They have a tough external skeleton called an ___________. They also have _______ and _______. This is the _______ phylum of animals. They live in _____ environment on earth.
jointed-foot; segments; exoskeleton; cephalization; jointed appendages; largest; every
Phylum molluska includes what 5 animals?
snails, slugs, clams, squids, and octopi
Mollusks are soft-bodied animals that have either a ___ or ____ shell, They have true _______ like annelids. The reason these very different looking animals are in the same phylum is because of the behavior of their _____. Many have a free-swimming larvae stage called a ____________
internal; exterior; coeloms; larvae; trochophore
Name some General Characteristics of Mollusks
-Coelomates, bilaterally symmetrical, most have have soft and fleshy bodies covered by hard shells (made of calcium carbonate) and have 2 main body parts
What are the 2 main body parts of mollusks?
Head-foot (with brain and locomotive parts) and
Visceral mass (containes digestive system, excretory system, reproductive system, and heart. covered by mantle along with respiratory system in mantle cavity)
Name the 3 classes of phylum molluska
Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cephalopoda
snails, slugs, lightning welk, conch (1 shell)
oysters, scallops (only non-sessile), clams (2 shells)
nautilus (only cephalopod with shell), octopus, cuttlefish and squid (both have pen)
Free-swimming(motile) and predatory
Have tentacles and arms surroundgin the head with powerful suction cups (some of which are venemous)
Kill and Eat prey with beak
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