US Civil Rights
US Civil Rights
Terms in this set (55)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
After Rosa Parks - 11 months - early event in Civil Rights Movement
nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, often braving attacks by angry white mobs such as at lunch counters in Greensboro, North Carolina
attempt to integrate interstate buses - Kennedy forced to use executive authority to protect riders
Engele v. Vitale
prayer in public schools was banned on the grounds that such laws violated the First Amendment's establishment clause
Baker v. Carr
districts were redrawn so that each representative represented the same number of people, against gerrymandering
Betty Freidan/The Feminine Mystique
book that stated that many women are not happy with the domesticity of the 1950's origin of modern feminism movement
National Organization for Women (NOW)
wanted equal employment opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, anti Vietnam War
registration (1963) at traditionally segregated U. of Miss. prompts riots, state ignores federal pleas for peaceful integration
Gideon v. Wainwright
all defendants in serious criminal cases are entitled to legal counsel
Martin Luther King, Jr.
leader of the Civil Rights Movement/President of the SCLC, Letter from a Birmingham Jail (1963) and I have a Dream speech (1963)
believed racism was an inherent part of U.S. capitalist society and were militant, revolutionaries for Black Power
March on Washington
200,000 demonstrators at Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's
Escobedo v. Illinois
right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter forced confessions given without the benefit of counsel
Platform for LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress
1965 - provided, under social security, federal subsidies to pay for the hospitalization/medicine of sick people age 65 and over
Miranda v. Arizona
Right to remain silent and the right to an attorney
Roe v. Wade
No state can take away right of women to have abortion druing 1st trimester
Furman v. Georgia
manner of death penalty illegal in some states - death penalty's can't be racist
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. Urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
two African-Americans won 1st and 3rd in the 200m dash; during the medal ceremony, while the National Anthem was played, they both raised one hand in a Black Power salute; both were sent home
a SNCC organizer and former sharecropper who had been evicted from her farm after registering to vote & thrown in jail for urging other African Americans to register to vote; helped organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party & challenged the legality of the segregated Democratic Party at the Democratic Convention
A. Phillip Randolph
African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who planned a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war industries and the armed forces during WWII
.United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama)
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on segregationist and nationalist ideas
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Brown v. Board (1954)
The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
An African American murdered by a white man for breaking a rule of segregation in the south.Start of civil rights movement for African Americans
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
Created United Farm Workers, Delores Huerta, goal: end poverty and caste system, used Mexican Eagle as symbol, Hispanic Gandhi
Little Rock Nine
Nine black students who desegregated Central High School in Little Rock
Arkansas governor who called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under federal court order.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper
Voting Rights Act of 1965
invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks
A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote, used against African-Americans
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
SNCC - (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; registering African-Americans to vote
SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference
churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
Tommy Smith and John Carlos
In 1968, these two Olympic athletes made a statement when they raised their fist on the podium to show support for the movement.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
Nonviolent Civil Disobedience
A philosophy of opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully violating it and allowing oneself to be punished as a result, connected to Gandhi and Thoreau
Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres.
Moses Wright's testimony in the trial of his great-nephew, Emmett Till accused killers would go down in history as one of the bravest moments of the civil rights movement
American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
1963 elected chairmen of SNCC. Elected to Congress in 1968
Nation of Islam
A group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Leader of the nation of Islam from 1945 to his death in 1975.
"I have nothing to lose by standing up for my beliefs. So I'll go to jail, so what? We've been in jail for 400 years."
1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country.
Stonewall Riots (1969)
a group of riots in new york by homosexuals, marked the beginning of the gay rights movement
War on Poverty
President LBJ's program in the 1960s to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly (eg Mediacre, Medicaid, Food Stamps, and Vista)
Roe v. Wade (1973)
legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Established that there is an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution