21 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 6 - Module 20 and A Bit More - Community Ecology

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community ecology
study of how interactions between species affect community structure & organization
competition
struggle of individuals to obtain a limiting resource
competitive exclusion principle
principle stating that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist
resource partitioning
when two species divide a resource, based on differences in their behavior or morphology
predation
interaction in which one animal kills & consumes another animal
parasitism
interaction in which one organism lives on or in another organism
pathogens
parasite that causes disease in its host
parasitoids
a specialized type of predator that lays eggs inside of other organisms - referred to as its host
mutualism
interaction between two species that increases the chances of sruvival or reproduction for both species
commensalism
relationship between species in which one species benefits & the other species is neither helped nor harmed
symbiotic relationship
relationship between two species that live in close association with each other
keystone species
plays a far more important in its community than its relative abundance might suggest
herbivory
interaction in which an animal consumes a producer
ecosystem engineer (foundation species)
a keystone species that creates or maintains habitat for other species
generalist species
Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Examples are flies, cockroaches, mice, rats, and human beings. Compare specialist species.
specialist species
Species with a narrow ecological niche. They may be able to live in only one type of habitat, tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions, or use only one type or a few types of food.
invasive species
Species that enter new ecosystems and multiply, harming native species and their habitats.
indicator species
Species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded.
endemic species
Species that is found in only one area. Such species are especially vulnerable to extinction.
dominant species
Those species in a community that have the highest abundance or highest biomass. These species exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species.
indigenous species (native)
In biogeography, a species is indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural processes, with no human intervention.
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