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enzyme-regulated chemical reactions that release energy
enzyme-regulated chemical reactions that require energy
sequences of chemical reactions that happen in a cell-they are determined by its enzymes
explains how chemical reactions occur and how certain factors affect the rates of those reactions
amount of energy needed to disrupt the stable electronic configuration of any specific molecule so that the electrons can be rearranged
frequency of collisions containing sufficient energy to bring about a reaction
substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered themselves
proteins that act as biological catalysts
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
Maximum number of substrate molecules an enzyme molecule converts to product each second
Protein portion of enzyme
Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions
Complete "active enzyme". Includes an apoenzyme attached to a coenzyme
the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
factors influencing enzymatic activity
3. substrate concentration
when an enzyme's active site is always occupied by substrate or product molecules
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
used to control an enzyme that is normally in the "on" position; alters the shape of the active site and turns it "off"
A site on an enzyme other than the active site, to which a specific substance binds, thereby changing the shape and activity of the enzyme.
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
an RNA molecule that function as an enzyme, catalyzing reactions. It can also splice RNA
the loss of electrons from a substance, a reaction that often produces energy
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
A form of oxidation in which hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule.
The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration.
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy, glucose is the most common carbohydrate energy source used by cells
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
pentose phosphate pathway
breakdown of a 5 carbon sugars, produces important intermediate pentoses used in the synthesis of nucleic acids, glucose from CO2 in photosynthesis and certain amino acids
An alternative to glycolysis and yields less ATP. Catabolizes glucose to pyruvate with different enzymes then EMP pathway. Only found in prokaryotes (Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium). Net yield: 1 ATP, 1 NADH, and 1 NADPH per Glucose
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
respiration in which oxygen is consumed and glucose is broken down entirely; water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts of ATP are the final products.
the process by which cells obtain energy from an energy source without using oxygen
The Krebs cycle
the first of two stages of a process called cellular respiration, in which glucose is transformed into a usable form of chemical energy called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. begins with the raw materials glucose and oxygen and yields carbon dioxide and water (both waste products) and free energy, some of which is captured and stored in usable form as ATP.
preparatory step where one molecule of CO2 leaves pyruvate to become a 2-carbon compound
A protein containing a derivative of riboflavin, which functions as electron carrier in the electron transport system.
An iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells
lipid soluble, non protein carriers found in all cells, derived from vitamin K 9 Coenzyme Q in eukaryotes.[high energy, but lower energy than flavoproteins]
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
1. releases energy from sugars or other organic molecules, such as amino acids, organic acids, etc
2. does not require oxygen
3. does not require the use of the Kreb's cycle or an electron transport chain
4. uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor
5. produces only small amounts of ATP because much of the original energy in glucose remains in the chemical bonds or the organic end-products, such as lactic acid
lactic acid fermentation
a type of fermentation where the pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as an end product, with no release of CO2. Produces little energy.
microbes that only produce lactic acid; can result in food spoilage, but also produces yogurt from milk, pickles from cucumbers
Anaerobic ATP-forming pathway. Pyruvate from glycolysis is degraded to acetaldehyde and CO2, which accepts electrons from NADH to form ethanol; NAD+ needed for the reactions is regenerated. Net yield: 2 ATP.
Organisms that produce lactic acid as well as other acids or alcohols
The removal of an amino group; part of the degradation of proteins into compounds that can enter the Krebs cycle.
method used to determine whether a bacterium or yeast ferments a specific carbohydrate. usually performed in a peptone broth containing the carbohydrate, a pH indicator, and inverted tube to trap gas.
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide, such as in photosynthesis
light-dependent (light) reactions
phase of photosynthesis where light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP; results in the splitting of water and release of oxygen
light-dependent (dark) reactions
in photosynthesis, the electrons are used with energy from ATP to reduce CO2 to sugar
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis; cyclic carbon-fixing pathway that forms sugars from CO2
organisms that get energy from light
organisms that depend on oxidation-reduction reactions of inorganic or organic compounds for energy
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
organisms that use light as a source of energy and carbon dioxide as their chief source of carbon
referring to any process or reaction that produces oxygen. Photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, which involves photosystem II, is oxygenic.
Referring to any process or reaction that does not produce oxygen. Photosynthesis in purple sulfur and purple nonsulfur bacteria, which does not involve photosystem II, is anoxygenic.
use light as a source of energy but cannot convert CO2 to sugar; rather, they use as sources of carbon organic compounds, such as alcohols, fatty acids, other organic acids and carbohydrates.
An organism that needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source but that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances.
organisms that specifically use the electrons from hydrogen atoms in organic compounds as their energy source
Organisms that obtain their food from dead organic matter (plant and animal material)
an organism that lives in or on another organism, deriving nourishment at the expense of its host, usually without killing it
Metabolic pathways that have both catabolic and anabolic functions
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