Social Psychology Chapter 8
Terms in this set (45)
Efforts to change the behavior, attitudes, or feelings of other people
Efforts to change others' behavior through norms about how to behave in a situation. Could cause chaos if it didn't exist
Efforts to change others' behavior through direct requests
Following direct orders from other people
Unintentional social influence
Changing others' behavior without intending to
Asch's Line Experiment
37% of participants went along with the group even when the group provided an answer that was clearly wrong
Conformity dropped to 5% when at least one confederate disagreed with the group's incorrect answer
Sherif - Autokinetic effect
Had people say how much they thought the light was moving
With other people - influence each other, eventually converge on the amount they think light is moving
Group norm held even when people rated alone later
When we want to belong to a social group, we tend to follow their norms more. affects conformity
Group size -Conformity increases with group size
Status - Senior group members feel less pressure, junior members feel more pressure
Culture - More conformity in collectivistic cultures
Our brain is activated when we watch others. Reason why we conform.
our behavior is shaped by the evidence about reality that we get from other people. Reasons why we conform.
Describe what most people do in a particular situation and tell us what is appropriate in a situation
How people should behave in a particular situation. Tells us what is approved or disapproved of in a situation
Normative Focus Theory
Norms will only influence behavior when salient to people involved
We need to recognize them and believe they apply to us
Informational social influence
Depend on others to inform us how to behave. Usually when we are unsure how to react
Stanford Prison Experiment
Participants arrested from their homes, assigned to be either prisoners or guards. Yielding to social pressures can lead to evil
Actors - experience pressure to conform
Observers - don't experience pressure, might become sensitive to restrictions of personal freedom
Observers might experience reactance
Power makes us less susceptible to social influence
Powerful people depend less on others and are less likely to perspective take
Minority groups can (and do) exert social influence
This is especially likely under particular conditions; Members must be consistent in opposition to majority, Avoid appearing rigid and dogmatic, Social context
more influence if arguing for a position consistent with current trends
Basic Principles of Compliance
Friendship/liking, Commitment/consistency, scarcity, reciprocity, social validation, and authority. We are most likely to comply if these are met.
draw attention to basic similarities, based on friendship/liking
Starting with a small request, then working up to bigger request, based on commitment/consistency
Offer a good deal, then "something happens" to make deal less desirable. Based on commitment/consistency
The lure effect/Bait-and-switch
First ask someone to do something appealing, then say you actually need them to do another task instead. Based on commitment/consistency
Start with a large request, and once rejected, ask a small request. Based on reciprocity.
Initial request followed by something that sweetens the deal before person can answer. Based on reciprocity
Sales are effective when they say the deadline is coming up. Based on scarcity
Playing hard to get
Making it seem like many other people want you. Based on scarcity
Milgram's Obedience Experiment
Participants required to deliver shocks of increasing intensity to a confederate ("Learner")
15 ("Slight shock") to 450 volts ("XXX")
Encouraged by the experimenter to continue
Ways to Reduce Destructive Obedience
Reminders people (not authorities) are responsible for their own actions
Clear indication that at some point obedience can become destructive
Question expertise and motives of authority figures
Knowing about power of authority figures
Moods can spread from one person to another
we match others' feelings
interpret others' actions as a sign of what we should feel. Particularly for people we are similar to
Symbolic Social Influence
Thoughts of how others will respond affect our actions and attitudes
Learn from observing others and do what they do
it becomes easier to resist conformity pressure once unanimity of the group is broken
In several variations on Asch's classic experiment, a standard-setting line was first presented to small groups of people, followed by the presentation of three comparison lines of different lengths. In one condition, two of three accomplices, posing as students, chose an incorrect answer before the subject could respond. The third accomplice sometimes chose a correct response and sometimes chose a more incorrect response. Under these conditions, respondents were more likely to choose the correct response. These results suggest ________.
Zimbardo's prison experiment demonstrates that ________ can overpower ________, and people may conform to expected roles.
want to be correct, and one way to do so is to emulate the behaviors of others whom we see as similar to ourselves in some way
One of the factors associated with compliance is social validation. This is because we ________.
the that's-not-all technique
When an auto dealer offers you an extra option as a "closer" for a deal, the dealer is using ________.
performance on tasks and our commitment to reaching these goals
One way in which symbolic social influence may work is by allowing the psychological presence of others to trigger goals with which the other persons are associated. This may, in turn, influence our ________.
the authority figure relieves those who obey of responsibility for their actions
One reason that people are willing to obey persons in authority who order them to engage in destructive behaviors is that ________.
remind people that they—not the authorities—are responsible for any harm done
One way to help people become more resistant to commands from authorities that may lead to destructive behaviors is to _______________.
difficult to resist even if they involve harming another person
One of the key findings from Stanley Milgram's studies was that pressures to obey are ________.
Which of the following is a form of unintentional social influence?