GEOLOGY CHAPTER 10
Terms in this set (23)
An approximate representation or simulation of a real system, incorporating only the essential features or variables, of a system while omitting details considered non-essential (conceptual, graphical, physical or numerical)
Global climate models (GCMs)
Simulations of Earth's climate system using mathematics
An interval between one set of solutions and the next, and isa function of the grid spacing utilized in the GCMs.
Technique of using estimates for small processes on a larger scale in modeling.
GCMx simulate climate that prevailed in the geologic past.
A measure of how much greater the accuracy of a prediction is compared to the accuracy of some typically simple prediction
Chaos theory ("Butterfly effect"
Mathematical field of study relating to dynamic conditions in the climate system. Changes in these systems are highly sensitive to the conditions of their initial state so small differences in their initial conditions can lead to vastly different outcomes over long periods of time
Global climate models and improvements over time, models can be paired so that the exchanges are accurately represented
Quasi-biennial cycle (QBO)
Fluctuates between about 24 and 30 months (biennial - every 2 years)
Length of time of something that resides in the atmosphere. The lifetime of a gas in the atmosphere is the time it takes for a perturbation of gas to be reduced to 37% of its original amount.
Equalizing temperature change in response to changes in external forces of the boundary conditions of climate
Occurrence of weather or climate events above the threshold value for the upper range, or below the lower range of observed values (tail end of a bell-curved distribution)
Result of vigorous convection that extends high into the troposphere, sometimes reaching the tropopause or even higher
Violent rotating column of air in contact with the ground, usually associated with a thunderstorm
A ball or jagged lump of ice, often characterized by concentric internal layering resembling an onion that fall from intense thunderstorm cells
Intense tropical cyclone that originates over warm ocean waters, usually in late summer or early fall, when SSTs are highest and has a maximum wind speed of at least 119 km per hour (74 mph).
Occurs due to ocean water driven ashore by strong onshore winds, blowing from sea to land, associated with the central low pressure of the cyclone.
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale
1970s, Rating system for hurricanes that are rated from category 1 to 5 corresponding to increasing intensity (wind speed is the primary factor for the category)
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)
Ongoing series of long-duration changes in the SSTs of the North Atlantic Ocean, with cool and warm phases that may last for 20 to 40 years.
Large swaths of freezing rain
Lack of accessible water - menacing effect on agriculture
Weather episode that tends to occur on or about a certain date more frequently than cane would dictate
Climate tipping points
May be small in scale but have global consequences. Climate system is pushed one stable state to another very different state (e.g. ozone hole in Europe, permafrost and tundra loss in Russia)
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