236 terms

3rd Q History Final Hansson

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Mycenaeans
An Indo-European people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.
Trojan War
A war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia.
Dorians
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
Homer
A Greek poet, author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Myth
A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.
Polis
A city-state
Acropolis
A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city.
Monarchy
A government in which power is in the hands of a single person.
Aristocracy
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility.
Oligarchy
A government in which power is in the hands of a few people.
Tyrant
A powerful individual who gained control of a city-state's government by appealing to the poor for support.
Democracy
A government controlled by its citizens.
Helot
A peasant forced to stay on the land they worked.
Phalanx
A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields.
Persian Wars
A series of wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire (5th century B.C.).
Direct democracy
A government in which citizens rule directly rather than through the representatives.
Peloponnesian War
A war between Athens and Sparta (5th century B.C.)
Classical art
The art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized
Tragedy
A serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character
Comedy
A humorous form of drama that often includes slapstick and satire
Philosophers
"Lovers of wisdom", a thinker who uses logic and reason.
Socrates
Critic of the Sophists, was condemned to death for "corrupting the youth of Athens"
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
Aristotle
Student of Plato, tutor of Alexander the Great
Macedonia
An ancient kingdom north of Greece
Philip II
King of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley
Darius III
Persian king who lost his empire to Alexander the Great
Hellenistic culture
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire.
Euclid
Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria
Archimedes
Scientist from Syracuse, estimated the value of pi
Colossus of Rhodes
Largest known Hellenistic statues, one of the wonders of the ancient world
Alexandria
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
Greece
mountainous Peninsula, 2,000 islands
Geography of Greece
Islands, mountains, size, climate, etc.
Greece
Geography: not on land, around sea, main source of transportation and trade, did not have timber, metals, or much farming Land: mountains cover ¾, northwest to southeast, divided land into regions, ¼ farmable area, Climate: 48 - 80 F
Anatolia
east of Greece, peninsula
Troy
in Anatolia, in Homer's tales
Athens
democracy, Citizens: free, adult, property owning males, , Education: 7 year old boys, wealthy sons, reading grammar, poetry, history, math, music, public speaking, logic, athletics, went to military, GIRLS: rearing children, weaving, cooking, maybe reading and writing
Sparta
part of Peloponnesus, military state, 725 BC Sparta took over land of Messenia, Messenians = helots (peasants forced to give ½ of crops to Sparta)(650 BC revolted and almost won
Aegean Sea
sea between Anatolia and Greece
Mediterranean Sea
major trade, north of Africa, west of Asia, south of Europe
Nile
longest river in the world, major trade for Africans
Macedonia
rough terrain, cold, looked down upon by Greeks, fearless kings
Minoans
islanders much earlier, contacted the Mycenaeans
Mycenaeans
migrated 2000 BC, Mycenae: rock ridge and 20 ft. wall, Contacted Minoans after 1500 BC, Traded with Anatolia, Syria, Egypt, Italy, and Crete, Spoke Mycenaean language,1200 BC Mycenaean culture dies because of war and sea raiders
Dorians
came in after Mycenaeans, less advanced, no writing, 1150 - 750 no records
Homer
Dorian, 750 - 700 BC
Draco
Athenian, 621: criminals put to death, debtors would pay in slavery
Solon
Athenian, 594: no slavery, 4 social classes based on wealth, top three classes could be political officials or be in the Athenian assembly, all 4 could bring charges against wrongdoers
Cleisthenes
Athenian, 500: 10 classes based on location, public could submit laws, council of 500 looked over laws chosen by lot
Spartans
Sparta strengthened military, assembly: citizens and officials that voted on issues, council of Elders: 30 old citizens that made possible laws, 5 officials to enforce, 2 kings that ruled military, Social order: 1st: descendants of originals, 2nd: noncitizens who were free, 3rd: helots, 4th: slaves, Life: men served military until 60, 7 - 30 years men stayed in army barracks
Persians
warred with Greece and failed
Delian League
league of Greek city-states that joined forces after the Persian Wars
Pericles
led Greece through golden age for 32 years (461 - 429),
3 goals of Pericles
strengthen Athenian democracy: raised # of gov. officials who got salaries, poor people could rule too, more citizens participated (direct democracy), hold and strengthen empire: head of Delian League, League money for navy (safety and trade), glorify Athens: beatified Athens with money from League without consent
Thucydides
greatest historian in classical age, certain events occur again and again, still guides historians
Aeschylus
more than 80 tragedies
Aristophanes
wrote comedies
Euripides
strong women starred in his plays
Herodotus
lived in Athens, had a book of accurate records, 1st history book was on Persian Wars
Philosophers
lovers of wisdom, absolute and unchanging logic and reason,
Socrates
absolute standard for justice and truth exist, encouraged examining moral character, 399 BC (70) condemned to death by poisoning for disrupting the youth and neglecting the gods
Plato
student of Socrates and wrote down their conversations, vision of a perfect society: no democracy with farmers, artisans, warriors, ruling class, with one philosopher-king
Aristotle
student of Plato, questioned nature of world, methods of arguing based on belief, scientific method, taught Alexander the Great from 343 - 340 BC
Philip II of Macedonia
23 years old at crowning, good general and politician, phalanxes of 16 X 16 with spears, conquered north, conquered Greece in 338 BC, stabbed to death in 336, son took throne
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II, proclaimed himself king at 20, student of Aristotle, quieted Greek rebellion, 334: led 35,000 men to Anatolia and crushed 40,000 Persians, Darius III: raised 50,000 - 75,000 men and was surprised by Alexander's troops, Darius fled and offered him land but Alexander declined, 332: Alexander conquered Egypt and civilians crowned him pharaoh, beat Persian army again and Darius fled, claimed Babylon, Susa, Persepolis, found Darius dead, 326: Indus River Valley - beat Indian army and moved on, turned around, 323: reached Babylon and said he would unify the Empire and died a few days later, empire split
Euclid
Book called the Elements: 465 proofs and propositions
Archimedes
Syracuse, scientist, estimated pi, law of lever, invented: screw, pulley
Trojan War
1200s BC, Mycenaeans vs. Troy inTroy, Trojan Prince had kidnapped Helen, wife of Greek King, true
Myths
Greek mythology
Gods
emotional, explained the seasons
Polis
fundamental political unit in ancient Greece, made of city and surrounding country side, 50 - 500 square miles, 10,000 citizens, acropolis: place to discuss politics
Monarchy
one king
Aristocracy
noble landowning families
Oligarchy
few powerful people (about 3-5)
Democracy
rule by the people
Direct democracy
the people directly represent themselves
Tyrants
powerful people appeal for common favor and seize power, not necessarily cruel, worked for the needs of the common people
Golden Age of Greece
477 - 431 BC (50 years), Pericles: (461 - 429)
Drama and History
1st theaters in the West , wealthy paid for productions, tragedy: serious about love, hate, war, comedy: humorous,
New kind of army
phalanx side by side foot soldiers with a spear and shield
Persian Wars
poor and rich because iron was cheaper than bronze, Persians conquered Greece in Anatolia (546), Greeks revolted and Athens helped, Persians won and Darius promised to destroy Athens
490 BC
Persians sent 25,000 men across Aegean Sea, Greece- 10,000 men, Persia lost 6,000 and Athens 200, Athens sent Pheidippides 26 miles from marathon to Athens to tell them that they had won the battle and died, Persians sailed to Athens and found reinforced and retreated
480 BC
Darius' son Xerxes sailed to Athens, no resistance, 7,000 Greeks and 300 Spartans, Greeks stopped advance for 3 days, Persians heard of secret path, Spartans held off Persians while other Greeks retreated and all died
Athens
evacuated city, went to sea, Xerxes set fire to Athens, sunk 1/3 of Xerxes fleet
479 BC
Greeks put Persia on the defensive at Battle of Platea
478 BC
Delian League, Delos was capital
470s BC
Athens remained head of Delian League
Parthenon
traditional style 23,000 square feet, in honor of Athena, sculptor Phidias, Athena statue 30 feet tall, serenity and beauty, no realism, called classical art
Peloponnesian War
tension between Athens and Sparta, 431 BC Sparta declares war,
Sparta in Peloponnesian war
stronger army, swept country side, burning food supply, Pericles brought residents within walls
Athens in Peloponnesian war
stronger navy, kept up food supply
429 BC
disease struck Athens, killed 1/3 of population and Pericles
421 BC
Sparta and Athens sign a truce
415 BC
Athenians sent 20,000 men to Syracuse
413 BC
Sparta won
404 BC
Athens surrenders
Hellenistic Culture
Greek/Egyptian/Persian/Indian, language: Koine,
Alexandria
center of commerce, ½ a million people, giant glass coffin for Alexander, lighthouse, temple dedicated to the Muses, art galleries, zoo, botanic gardens, libraries
Astronomy
museum had observatory, Aristarchus: said Earth was 300X smaller than the sun and orbited it, Eratosthenes: calculated earth's size and was almost right
Why was it important that Aristotle taught Alexander the great
Taught him all known Greek stuff
Solon
introduced laws that say no debt slavery
Dorians
did not come after the Peloponnesian War, much earlier, illiterate
The sea
shaped Greek civilizations
Syracuse
Sparta's ally that was attacked by Athens
Italy
Rome controlled central Italy in 400 BC, 265 BC controlled almost all of it, conquered people were citizens without voting rights, Latins could vote, all other conquered people = allies
Rome
founded on 7 hills,
Egypt
conquered by Julius Caesar where he was made Pharaoh, Alexandria
Anatolia
Roman Empire in the East
Carthage
Colony of Phoenicia, North African Coast, rise in power, opposition to Rome
Spain
Roman Empire in the West
Gaul
Julius Caesar conquered
Britain
know where it is
Byzantium
turned into Roman capital and renamed Constantinople
Constantinople
formerly Byzantium, capital of Roman Empire
Jerusalem
holy land
Mediterranean Sea
used for trade between the places in the Roman Empire
Judea
Roman power spread, finally conquered in 6 AD, home to Jesus
Jews and Conquerors
Jews rebelled against Rome in 66 AD, Rome burned temple in 70 AD, fortress near Masada remained until 73 AD, ½ a million Jews died
Geography of Rome
Very fertile land (90% farmers), close to sea was good for trade and communication
Romulus and Remus
legendary founders of Rome, sons of Mars, raised by wolves
Tarquin the Proud
last king of Rome, 509: taken from throne
Jesus
6 - 4 BC, born in Bethlehem, special appeal to the poor, at 30 started his public ministry, died in about 29 AD, Christos: savior or messiah, teachings did not contradict Jewish views
Latins
central Italy
Greeks
southern Italy
Etruscans
northern Italy
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
gave land to the poor to even out the gap, limited estate sizes, both killed
Julius Caesar
pact with Crassus and Pompey, 59 BC became a consul, 10 year Triumvirate, 58-50 BC conquered Gaul, was told by Pompey to come home, January 10, 49 BC Caesar went across Rubicon River and Pompey fled, conquered Rome other armies, 46 BC: became dictator of Rome, 44 BC: became dictator for life
Caesar's Rule
citizenship to many, bigger Senate with his friends, building projects, colonies for those without land, increased soldier pay, stabbed by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius on March 15, 44 BC
First triumvirate
Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
Second triumvirate
Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus
Octavian Augustus
forced Lepidus to retire, Mark Antony became enemy, defeated Cleopatra and Antony and the naval battle of Actium: 31 BC, changes name to Augustus (exalted one), became emperor, civil service: paid workers who managed government affairs, died 14 AD
Cleopatra
fell in love with Mark Antony, commit suicide
Mark Antony
fell in love with Cleopatra, commit suicide
Marcus Aurelius
Pax Romana ends at end of his rule
St. Peter
head apostle, first bishop of Rome and pope
St. Paul
influence on spread of Christianity, vision of Jesus on way to Damascus
Diocletian
284 AD, emperor of Roman Empire, restored order, divided Empire, took Eastern half, retired in 305 AD, civil was in 311 AD
Constantine
legalized Christianity, gained control of Western half of Empire, 324 AD gained Eastern half, 330 AD: moved capital of Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople
Theodosius
made Christianity official religion of Roman Empire in 380 AD
Germanic peoples
plundered Rome
Attila the Hun
came to Rome and pillaged
Romulus Augustulus
last emperor of Rome, about 14 years old
Virgil
wrote Aeneid (most famous Latin literarture)
Republic
established after Tarquin, power rests with the citizens (free born males) who can vote, 100 BC - 0 B: balanced government, consuls: 2 military leaders (1 year every 10 years) and could veto each other,
senate
300 patricians and later plebeians,
Tribal Assembly
elected tribune and made laws for people, in crisis dictator for 6 months
Twelve Tables
451 BC: 10 officials caved laws on twelve tablets, hung in Forum, basis of Roman law, citizens had right to protection from the law
Roman army
all landowners had to go into the army, legions: 5,000 soldiers, infantry: with cavalry, century: 80 men
Punic Wars
264 BC: Rome and Carthage started war, 264 - 241: control for Sicily and Carthage lost, 218 BC: Hannibal moved through Spain, France, and Alps, doing well until Scipio planned to attack Carthage and Hannibal returned in 202 BC, 149 - 146 BC: Rome attacked Carthage, 146: Carthage burned
Civil war
erupted after Julius Caesar was stabbed
The Roman Empire
extended from Spain to Anatolia
Battle at Actium
Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra
Pax Romana
27 BC - 180 AD period of peace, 60 - 80 million people, 1 million people in Rome
Gods/goddesses
based on Greek gods and goddesses
Culture/entertainment
gladiators: fight to the death, discipline: gravitus,
Pompeii
mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD and preserved works
Diaspora
exile of the Jews
Christianity
installed by Jesus, appealed to many
Edict of Milan
313 AD legalized Christianity
Battle at the Milvian Bridge
when Constantine saw the cross in the sky and converted in 312
Nicene Creed
created at Council of Nicea called by Constantine in 325 AD
Fall of the Roman Empire
Why? Hostile tribes and pirates disrupted trade, Lacked new sources of gold and silver, Raised taxes, Minted coins that contained less and less silver, Inflation- a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices, Overworked soil for farmers, Food shortages, Disease spread, Population declined, Roman soldiers were no longer loyal, No patriotism
Greco-Roman culture
Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman, called classical civilization, art used for education (realistic), mosaics and paintings, Stoicism, poetry, literature, history by Livy,
Latin
romance languages spun off of
Roman Law
Fair laws which apply to rich and poor, All had right to equal treatment under the law, Innocent until proven guilty, Burden of proof rested with the accuser not the accused, Punished for actions not thoughts, Any law that seemed unreasonable should be set aside
Architecture
arches, supported bridges and aqueducts, the dome, concrete
Romulus Augustulus
Name of the 14-year-old boy that was thrown out of power in Rome (last Emperor of Rome):
Correct order
Rise of the Roman Republic, Punic Wars, Rise of the Roman Empire
Romulus and Remus
were found by a shepherd and did not said down the Nile River in a basket
Germanic people
made the final blow on the Roman Empire, ruining the Western Empire
Roman Empire
the population varied between 15,000 and a little over 1 million
Homer
inspired the Aeneid
Portuguese
developed from Latin
Justinian I
became Emperor during the history of Byzantium, but the church did not divide during this time
Byzantines
used diplomacy to prop up their unsettling Empire
Romans
did not force the christians out of their homes and into exile in a dispersal called the great Diaspora in the second century AD (figure out what year)
Jesus
was born in Bethlehem
Byzantium
Constantinople in 330
Constantinople
capital of Byzantine Empire
Justinian
527- crowned emperor from uncle, 533: sent general, Belisarius to recover North Africa from Germanic tribes and succeeded, 531 seized Rome from the Ostrogoths, appointed and dismissed bishops, Justinian Code, rebuilt Constantinople with a hippodrome, built a new Hagia Sofia, died in 565
Theodora
wife of Justinian, told him to stay while riot raged in the city between two gangs
Belisarius
general for Justinian
Patriarch
means father, father of the Christian and Muslim and Jewish faiths, patriarch became head of eastern Empire and tried to excommunicate the pope in 1054 (split in Church)
Slavs
orthodox church took Christianity to the Slavs, inhabited forests north of Black Sea
Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius
invented an alphabet for the Slavs to read the Bible, called the Cyrillic alphabet
Byzantine Empire
located on Anatolia
Justinian Code
5,000 laws, quoted the opinions of Rome's greatest legal thinkers (50 volumes), institutes: textbook of how to use laws, noellae: presented legislation passed after 534
Hagia Sophia
first destroyed in 532 and built back up by Justinian, means holy wisdom
Greek
spoken language in Byzantium
Cause of the fall of the Byzantine Empire
Bubonic plague in 542, attacks, fell to the Turks in 1453
Division of the Church
Icon dispute, west was in favor of icons, east did not want icons, pope and patriarch tried to excommunicate each other in 730, 1054 religious doctrine dispute and official split
Cyrillic Alphabet
spoken by Slavs
Etruscans
An ancient people living in Italy and Corsica
Latins
An ancient people living in the region of Latium, Italy, who believed that they descended from Latinus, the father-in-law of Aeneas
Latium
A region of ancient Italy, home to the original Latin people.
Republic
A form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote.
Patrician
In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class.
Plebeian
In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up most of the population.
Carthage
Phoenician city in modern-day Tunisia which grew to become a major power in the western Mediterranean.
Tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.
Consul
In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government.
Senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Dictator
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time.
Legion
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Civil war
A conflict between two political groups within the same country.
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Triumvirate
In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.
Augustus
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew.
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Pompeii
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.
Good emperors of Rome
A time when Rome was ruled by five good emperors in a row- Nerva, Trajan, Hadria, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Bad emperors of Rome
Caligula, Nero, Domitian
Diaspora
The dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine - especially during the period of more than 1,800 years that followed the Roman's destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in A.D. 170.
Diocletian
Roman Emperor (284-305); the last systematic persecution of Christians took place towards the end of Diocletian's reign.
Constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity.
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Inflation
A decline in the value of money, accompanied by the rise in prices of goods and services.
Mercenary
A soldier who is paid to fight in a foreign army.
Attila
Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century.
Greco-Roman culture
An ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures.
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Tacitus
Senator and historian of the Roman Empire, wrote the Annals and the Histories.
Aqueduct
A pipeline or channel built to carry water to populated areas.
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Justinian Code
The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534.
Hagia Sofia
The cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Patriarch
A principal bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity
Icon
A religious image used by eastern Christians
Excommunication
The taking away of a person's right of membership in a Christian church
Cyrillic alphabet
An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius
hippocrates
father of medicine
democritus
all matter is made of atoms