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100 terms

CHEMISTRY FINAL 1

STUDY
PLAY
Which element has the greatest electronegativity?
fluorine
what are the group one metals known as?
alkali metals
the electron configuration of aluminum , atomic number 13, is [Ne] 3s2 3p1. What period is Aluminum in?
3
the periodic law states that the properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. This means that the ____ determines the position of each element in the periodic table.
number of protons
Which orbitals are characteristic of the lanthanide elements?
f orbitals
The electron configuration of an element is [Kr] 4d6 5s1. To what group does this element belong?
Group 7
The electron configurations of the noble gases from neon to radon in the periodic table end with filled ___
p orbitals
if n stands for the highest occupied energy level, the outer configuration for all Group 1 elements is ___
ns1
Because the first energy level only the 1s sublevel, the number of elements in this period is
2
the first electrons to be removed when d-block elements form ions are the ___
s electrons
Ionization energy is the energy required to remove _______ from an atom of an element
an electron
Neutral atoms with a s2p6 electron configuration in the highest energy level are best classified as ____
gases
Mendeleev is credited with developing the first successful _____
periodic table
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom _____ as you move left to right from K through Fe
generally increases
Among the d-block elements, as atomic radii decrease, electronegativity values ____
increase
Elements in the d- sublevel is being filled have the properties of ___
metals
a horizontal row of blocks in the periodic table is called a ___
period
In a row in the periodic table, as the atomic number increases, the atomic radius generally ____
decreases
The most useful source of general informantion about the elements for anyone associated with chemistry a ____
periodic table
the electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared, when the atoms form molecules are called ___
valence electrons
Across a period, the atomic radii of d-block elements generally___
decrease
Identify the sublevels in a periodic period that contain 32 elements
s,p,d,f
which groups in the main group have lower electronegativity than d-block elements?
groups 1 and 2
The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to ____
Mendeleev
A positive ion is known as a ___
cation
The person whose work led to a periodic table based on an increasing atomic number was _____
Moseley
Nitrogen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p3. To what group does N belong?
15
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom is the atoms
ionization energy
the ionization energies for removing successive electrons from Na are 496 kJ/MOL, 4562 KJ/MOL, 6012 Kj/MOL, and 9544 kJ/MOL. the great jump in ionization energy after the first electron is removed indicates that ___
the noble gas configuration has been reached
for each successive electron removed from an atom, the ionization energy ___
increases
a neutral atom that represents aquiring an electron in an exothermic process is
A + e- > A- + energy
what are the radioactive elements with atomic numbers from 90-103 in the periodic tabble called
actinides
the elements whose electron configuration n with s2p5 in the highest occupied energy level belong to ____
17
bromine, atomic number 35, belongs to group 17. how many electrons does bromine have in its outermost energy level?
7
the periodic law allows some properties of an element to be predicted on its ____
position in the periodic table
group 2 elements, the valence electrons are in sublevel ____
s
In period 3 there are 8 elements. What sublevels are being filled?
s and p
the number of valence electrons in group 2 elements is ____
2
Argon, Krypton, and Xenon are ____
noble gases
what are the elements with atomic numbers 58--71 in the periodic table called?
lanthanides
for groups 13-18, the total number of electrons in the highest occupied level equals the group number ___
minus 10
with a group of elements, as the atomic number increases, the atomic radius ____
increases
compared to the alkali metals, the alkaline-earth metals are _____
less reactive
a negative ion is know as an___
anion
when determining the size of an atom, by measureing the distance between identical adjacent nuclei, the radius of an atom is ____
half the distance between nuclei
Mendeleev noticed that properties of elements usually repeated at regular intervals when the elements were arranged in order of increasing
atomic mass
the most characteristic property of the noble gases is that they ___
are largely unreactive
elements in a group or column in a periodic table can be expected to have similar ___
properties
in the modern periodic table, elements are ordered according to ___
increasing atomic number
the most reactive group on nonmetals are the ___
halogens
in which of these compounds is the bond between the atoms not a nonpolar covalent bond?
HCl
The b-f bond in bf3 (electronegativity for b is 2.0; electronegativity for f is 4.0) is
ionic
a chemical bond formed by the attraction between positive ions an surrounding mobile is a ___
metallic bond
a chemical bond resulting from the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called an____
ionic bond
the electron-c model of bonding represents ___
metallic bonding
in drawing a lewis structure , each nonmetal atom except hydrogen should be surronded by _____
8 electrons
if the lattic energy compound A is greater than that of compound B ____
the bonds in compound A are stronger
the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of eqaul energies is called
hybridization
lattice energy is the energy released in the formation of a ____
ionic compound
if two covalently bonded atoms are identical, the bond is ___
nonpolar covalent
in many compounds, atoms of main-group elements form bonds so that the number of electrons in the outermost energy levels of each atom is
8
the electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond are called
valence electrons
according to VSEPR theory, the shape of an ab3 molecule is
triangular planar
nonpolar covalent bonds are not common because
1 atom usually attracts electrons more strongly than the other
the intermolecular attraction between a hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom and the unshared pair of electrons of another strongly electronegative atom is called
hydrogen bonding
the model for predicting the shape of a molecule that is based on the repulsion of the electrons for each other is called
VSEPR theory
in drawing a lewis structure the central atom is the
least electronegative atom
the ions in an ionic compound are organized into a
crystal
bond length is
the separation for which potential energy is at a minimum
compared with ionic compounds, molecular compounds ___
have lower melting points
mulitiple covalent bonds occur in atoms that contain carbon, nitrogen, or
oxygen
to draw a lewis structure, it is not necessary to know
bond energies
according to the VSEPR theory, an ab2 molecule is
linear
a molecule is a
neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
the greater the electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms, the greater percentage of
ionic character
a polar molecule contains
a region of positive charge and a region of negative charge
use VSEPR theory to predict the shape of the hydrogen sulfide model, H2S
bent
a bond that is less than 5% ionic is considered
nonpolar covalent
which of the following is not a property of an ionic compound?
low boiling point
the chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons is called a
covalent bond
a ____ shows the types and numbers of atoms joined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
molecular formula
the octect rule states that chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom has an octet of electrons in the
highest occupied energy level
the substance who lewis structure shows three covalent bonds is
NH3
if a material can be shaped or extended by physical pressure, such as hammering which property does the material have?
malleability
how many extra electrons are in the lewis structure of the phosphate ion, PO4 -3
3
the weak intermolecular forces resulting from instantaneous and induced dipoles are called
londen dispersion forces
shifting the layers of an ionic crystal causes the crytal to
shatter
the equal and opposite charges present in two regions of a polar molecule create a
dipole
the electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2p3. How many more electrons does N need to satisfy the octet rule?
3
which of the following is not an example of a molecular formula?
B
atoms naturally move
toward low potential energy
metals are malleable because the metallic bonding
allows one plain of ions to slide past another
in metals, the valence electrons
are shared by all the atoms
bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single lewis structure is
resonance
ionic compounds are brittle because the strong attractive forces
hold the layers in relatively fixed positions
the concept that electrostatic repulsion between electron pairs surrounding an atom causes these pairs to be separated as far as possible is the foundation of
the VSEPR theory
a shorthand representation of the compostion of a substance using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts is called a
chemical formula
a formula that shows types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule is called a
molecular formula
compared with the energies of neutral atoms, a crystal lattice has
lower potential energy
which hybrid orbitals help explain how methane bonds?
sp3 orbitals