TOEFL Vocabulary Words from "Running Water on Mars?"

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relics
n. something that is from a past time, place, culture
equatorial
adj. of or relating to the equator
enormous
adj. very great in size or amount
miniature
adj. very small
perhaps
adv. possibly but not certainly
catastrophic
adj. a terrible disaster
drain
v. to remove (liquid) from something by letting it flow away or out
plain
n. a large area of flat land without trees
judge
v. to form an opinion about (something or someone) after careful thought
onrushing
adj. a strong, fast movement forward
controversial
adj. relating to or causing much disagreement
proponent
n. a person who argues for or supports something
terrace
n. a flat area created on the side of a hill and used especially for growing crops
conceivable
adj. able to be imagined
evaporate
v. to change from a liquid into a gas
shoreline
n. the land along the edge of an area of water
recede
v. to move away gradually
detractor
n. a person who criticizes something or someone
perhaps
adv. possibly but not certainly
hemisphere
n. a half of the Earth
carbonate
adj. having many tiny bubbles that rise to the top : containing carbon dioxide
abundance
n. a large amount of something
absence
n. a failure to be present at a usual or expected place
merge
v. to cause (two or more things, such as two companies) to come together and become one thing: combine
twisting
n. the act of using pressure to make people do things that they do not want to do
feature
n. an interesting or important part.
extensive
adj. large in size or amount
interconnecting
adj. to connect with each other.
widespread
adj. common over a wide área or among many people
geologists
n. a science that studies rocks.
gullies
n. a long, narrow cut or low area in the ground that water moves through when it rains.
inconclusive
adj. not showing that something is certainly true
atmosphere
n. the whole mass of air that surrounds the Earth.
virtually
adv. very nearly.
permafrost
n. a layer of soil that is always frozen in very cold regions of the world.
speculate
v. to think about something and make guesses about it : to form ideas or theories about something usually when there are many things not known about it
adorned
v. to make (someone or something) more attractive by adding something beautiful
basin
n. the area of land around a large river and the small rivers that flow into it
rim
n. the outer edge of a usually round object
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