American Pageant Chapter 22
Terms in this set (28)
Oliver O. Howard
Union Civil War general given charge of the Freedmen's Bureau in 1865, with the mission of integrating the freed slaves into Southern society and politics during the second phase of the Reconstruction Era.
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Georgia Congressman who supported the Georgia Platform in 1850 and fought against secession in 1861 but eventually became the Vice President of the Confederate States of America.
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
Name given to the former slaves who migrated from the South to the West following the Civil War.
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
10 percent plan
A reconstruction plan that decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the union when 10 percent of voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be erection of a state gov. and then purified regime. (Lincoln)
group that viewed Reconstruction as a practical matter of restoring states into the Union and keeping the former Confederates out of government
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."
A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.; guaranteed "equal protection of the laws" to all Americans; most important amendment after Bill of Rights
It divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude; did not prohibit voting restrictions based on education, literacy, or gender.
Ex parte Milligan
1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under martial law.
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and aggressive assault on African Americans.
A derogatory term for white Southern Republicans who were working with African Americans to govern the South during Reconstruction
A white northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Acts passed to promote African American voting and mainly aimed at limiting the activities of the Ku Klux Klan. Through the acts, actions committed with the intent to influence voters, prevent them from voting, or conspiring to deprive them of civil rights, including life, were made federal offenses. Thus the federal government had the power to prosecute the offenses, including calling federal juries to hear the cases.
Tenure of Office Act
Forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet; used by Congress to impeach Johnson in 1868.
name given to purchase of Alaska from Russia
laws passed by southern state legislatures in 1865 to maintain white control of ex-slaves; restricted basic civil liberties of blacks to assemble, travel, serve on juries, own firearms, etc. Deeply angered northern public when they learned of these actions by South AFTER its defeat.
in order to maintain southern cotton production after end of slavery, white plantation owners promised to pay ex-slaves for their labor by dividing up the profits from the sale of cotton after the harvest; southerners lacked cash for wage-labor as northern reformers wanted; kept black sharecroppers in perpetual debt slavery
Pacific Railroad Act
when Republicans gained control of Congress after southern secession, they voted to build a transcontinental RR from Chicago to San Francisco. Started in 1863 and finished in 1869.