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138 terms

Human Systems

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nervous system
the system that transfers messages, manages information, & controls the body
brain
part of the central nervous system that manages messages, information, & functions
cerebrum
part of the brain that controls higher level intelligence such as memory, intelligence, emotion, speech; senses; and voluntary movement
cerebellum
part of the brain that controls motor control
spinal cord
transfers commands from brain to body
brain stem
part of the brain that controls messages & automatic processes such as breathing, blinking, swallowing, digesting, heart rate, & blood pressure
thalamus
part of the brain that carries messages from sensory organs
hypothalamus
part of the brain that controls processes in the body that happen automatically such as hunger, thirst, hormones...
neuron
a cell of the nervous system that sends signals from the brain to the body & vice-versa
neuron
a cell of the nervous system stuck in the g0 phase
axon
part of the neuron that sends signals away from the cell body
dendrites
parts of the neuron that recieve signals from other neurons or the environment
myelin sheath
the insulating membrane around the axon that keeps electrical signals moving
synapse
gap or space between two neurons where impulses travel from one cell to another
neurotransmitters
chemicals released by neurons that cross the synapse & attach themselves to the next neuron's receptors
lens
part of the eye that focuses light on the retina
retina
part of the eye where rods & cones convert light energy into nerve impulses
rods & cones
two types of cells that convert light energy into nerve impulses
1
Step _: Vibrations enter the auditory canal
2
Step_: The vibrations cause the eardrum to vibrate
3
Step_: Vibrations from the eardrum are picked up by the hammer, anvil, & stirrup
4
Step_: Vibrations from the stirrup are transmitted to the oval window
5
Step_: Pressure waves are created in the fluid-filled cochlea
6
Step_: Hair impulses respond to pressure waves by producing nerve impulses
cocaine
a drug that causes the sudden release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter
opiates
a drug that acts like endorphins, which deal with pain
meninges
connective tissues that wrap the brain & spinal cord in three layers
cerebrospinal fluid
this is found between meninges & the brain or spinal cord & acts as a protective shock absorber and allows nutrient/waste exchange between the blood & nervous system
circulatory system
system that circulates oxygen, nutrients, waste, & CO2
association
type of neuron that connects motor & sensory neurons
motor
type of neuron that carries impulses from the spinal cord
sensory
type of neuron that carries impulses to the spinal cord
chambers
the heart has four ____
right atrium
blood flows from the body into here
left atrium
blood flows from the lungs into here
left ventricle
blood flows from the heart to the body through here
right ventricle
blood flows away from the heart to the lungs through here
vein
blood flows to the heart
artery
blood flows away from the heart
valve
keeps blood flowing in one direction
pulmonary veins
blood vessels on the sides of the heart
superior vena cava
the vein on top of the heart
inferior vena cava
the vein on the bottom of the heart
septum
the part that separates the left & right halves of the heart
arteries
strong, flexible, & resilient blood vessels
arteries
bloods vessels that bear the highest blood pressures
arteries
blood vessels that narrow when the heart relaxes
arterioles
after branching out a lot, arteries become these
capillaries
tiny, extremely thin-walled blood vessels
capillaries
act as a bridge between veins and arteries
capillaries
blood vessels that have thin walls that allow oxygen & nutrients to leave the blood & enter tissues
capillaries
blood vessels that allow waste to pass form tissues into the blood
venules
blood vessels that connect capillaries & veins
veins
blood vessels with thin walls that can dilate when more fluid enters them
red
type of blood cells that carry oxygen
red, white
type of blood cells produced in the bone marrow
white
type of blood cells that work in the immune system
platelets
cell fragments that form clots to heal blood vessel ruptures
antigens
molecules that can be found on the surface of red blood cells
antibodies
substances produced by the immune system to help destroy foreign materials
respiratory system
system that brings in oxygen & puts out carbon dioxide
nose
where air enters & hair filters extraneous particles
pharynx
upper throat, where both air & food pass through
larynx
voice box/Adam's apple
epiglotis
flap to keep food out of the lungs
bronchi
branches in lungs attached to aveoli
bronchi
branches where air enters the lungs
lungs
these put oxygen in the blood stream
lungs
gas exchange occurs here
nose, pharynx, larynx, epiglotis, trachea, bronchi, lungs
order of respiratory system
aveoli
air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs
capillaries
in gas exchange, oxygen enters the ______
aveoli
in gas exchange, carbon dioxide enters the ______
diffusion
gas exchange is a form of _______
reproductive system
system that produces offspring
vas deferens
where sperm is stored before leaving the body
seminal vesicle
fluid from here nourishes sperm with fructose for energy
epididymis
where sperm develop & become able to move
testis
where sperm is produced & testosterone is secreted
scrotum
holds testes outside the body for the required temperature
prostate
basic fluid from here neutralizes acid in the vagina
penis
puts sperm in the vagina
uretha
where urine & semen go through
testis, epididymis, vas deferens, uretha
structures sperm passes through
fallopian tubes
egg passes through here
fallopian tubes
fertilization occurs here
ovaries
stores immature eggs
ovaries
ovulation occurs here
ovulation
mature egg leaves the ovaries
uterus
if fertilization occurs a baby grows here; if not, lining is shed
vagina
penis goes in; baby goes out
FSH
hormone produced in the pituitary gland that helps follicle development in the ovaries
LH
hormone produced in the pituitary gland that causes ovulation
estrogen
hormone produced in the ovaries that helps uterus lining thicken in preparation for a baby
progesterone
hormone produced in the corpus luteum that stops production of LH & FSH
follicular
stage of the menstrual cycle in which the follicle grows because of FSH
follicular stage
days 1-10 of the menstrual cycle
luteal
stage of the menstrual cycle in which the corpus lutem makes progesterone; if fertilization occurs the corpus luteum stays for several weeks
menstruation
stage of the menstrual cycle in which the uterus' lining is shed
ovulation
stage of the menstrual cycle in which the egg is released from the ovary to the fallopian tube
ovulation
days 10-14 of the menstrual cycle
immune system
system that protects the body
immune system
system that rids the body of foreign substances
immune system
system that heals the body
immune system
system that fights pathogens
pathogen
something that causes disease
nonspecific
_____ responses do not distinguish between one pathogen & another
mucus
traps pathogens in the nose & throat
fever
increases body temperature to slow the growth of pathogens
interferon
inhibits the synthesis of viral proteins & helps block viral replication
cilia
push pathogens away from the lungs
skin
provides a barrier that prevents pathogens from entering the body
inflamatory response
produces white blood cells to fight infection
humoral immunity
specific defense
b cells
white blood cells that recognize antigens & produce plasma cells & memory ______
plasma cells
produce antibodies against antigens
memory b cells
cells that retain the ability to produce antibodies against an antigen, improving the body's reaction
cell-mediated immunity
this gets rid of specific cells & pathogens
t cells
white blood cells involved in cell-mediated immunity
memory t cell
causes a secondary response if a pathogen that has already caused a response enters the body again
suppressor t cell
releases substances that shut down killer t cells
killer t cell
finds & destroys cells infected with a pathogen
helper t cell
produces memory t cells
capsid
protein that surrounds genetic material in a virus
t4 bacteriophage
robot virus; attacks bacteria
tobacco mosaic
corn cob virus; attacks tobacco
influenza
sphere virus; causes the flu
lysis
cut open or burst open
1
Step_: Virus attaches to host cell
2
Step_: Virus injects its genetic material into host cell
3
Step_: Virus uses host DNA & proteins to replicate its own genetic material
4
Step_: virus replicates
5
Step_: virus causes the host cell to lyse
lysogenic infection
virus attack method in which viral genetic material becomes a part of the host DNA
negative
charge of a resting neuron
positive
charge of ions that enter a stimulated neuron
sodium
type of ions that enter a stimulated neuron
sodium-potassium pump
pumps 3Na+(sodium) out for every 2K+(potassium) in