8th grade history final study guide
Terms in this set (104)
European who reached the islands of the Caribbean in 1492, Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
First permanent English settlement in North America, The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643), A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset ( now Portsmouth, R.I.)
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
Colonial Women's Domestic Jobs
Colonial Social Classes
a person's birth or wealth still determined his or her social status; 1) gentry was the top of society 2) middle class included farmers who worked their own land, skilled craftsworkers and tradespeople 3) indentured servents were the lowest, workers who signed contracts to work without wages for a period of four to seven years for anyone who would pay for their ocean passage to the Americas
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade, the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route
Fundamental rights inherent to being human that every person therefore possesses that cannot be taken away by government or another entity. This phrase was used in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Declaration of Independence. Inalienable is sometimes spelled unalienable.
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property, Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government and was widely accepted among America's Founders.
Philosophe who wrote "Spirit of Laws" in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system, later influencing the framing of the U.S. Constitution.
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
a soldier of the American Revolution whose troops helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British (1738-1789)
Green Mountain Boys
Group who was led by Ethan Allen and captured at Fort Ticonderoga
the first important battle of the American War of Independence (1775), a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Declaration's Three parts
United States general and traitor in the American Revolution
treaty of paris
Signed by the United States and Spain in December 1898, this treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Spain recognized Cuba's independence and assumed the Cuban debt; it also ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. At the insistence of the U.S. representatives, Spain also ceded the Phillipines. The Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899.
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812., Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
Three fifths compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million, The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
lewis and clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase., 1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
barbary pirate problems
pirates who were blocking our entrance into teh Mediterranean Sea unless we paid them money. US went to war with them and won. Significance-other countries now had more respect for US
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813), A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
william henry harrison
9th President of the United States, was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
United States 44-gun frigate that was one of the first three naval ships built by the United States
Francis Scott key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812
trail of tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
textile mill located in a factory town in Massachusetts that employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boardinghouses
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Areas in the south where cotton farming developed because of the high demand for cotton
Life under slavery
Varied greatly depending on location, type of farm and type of MASTER. No civil or political rights. Often denied any education - often illegal. Subject to physical abuse and emotional abuse., slave auctions that seperated family, poor living conditions, small food rations
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
urged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals, An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858), (1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums, A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859), Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
William Lloyd Garrison
United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879), 1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895), one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
declaration of sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
elizabeth cady stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
National Woman Suffrage Association
militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, (NAWSA) Organization dedicated to gaining the right to vote for women
ralph waldo emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory., a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Famous mountain man, Mountain man; first white man to enter California by land; discovered the South Pass, a wagon route from Wyoming to Oregon
Enthusiasm for emigration to the Oregon Country in the late 1830s and early 1840s., 1842 - Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
Mr. Polk's war
the war with Mexico had mixed views throughout the Union. It was popular in the Mississippi Valley, but it was called Mr. Polk's War in the northeast. Whigs generally opposed the war, but party members in Congress voted to support the America soldiers and marines during the fighting. Abraham Lincoln believed Polk rushed the country into war over disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. His views were not popular and he chose not to run for reelection as a Whig congressman.
Owner of the mill where gold was discovered that helped start the California Gold Rush
location where gold was discovered in California in 1848, setting off the gold rush
United States slave who sued for liberty after living in a non-slave state, American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the missouri Compromise
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War, Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Prisoners of war
the right that soldiers have to surrender and abandon their status as combatants, give up their weapons and their right to fight, and earn instead the right (like civilians) not to be targeted; cannot be killed, mistreated, or forced to disclose information beyond their name, rank, and serial number
Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War., This address is for the dedication to the cemetery from the Battle of Gettysburg, it composes of Lincoln's two minute long speech followed by the orator of the day's two-hour long speech. This speech attracted little attention at the time.
The union forces wanted to capture Vicksburg in order to control to Mississippi River. (Union) Gen. Grant surrounded Vicksburg and bombed it for a month. The people and Confederate soldiers starved until they surrendered.
United States inventor, American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.
-15 seconds was first "flight"
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes, 1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
U.S. forest service
Roosevelt set aside millions of acres of national forests and created the nation's first wildlife sanctuaries
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Ida B. Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals
Woodrow Wilson's 1916 Slogan
"He kept us out of war"
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amednment., made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 - closed newspaper and jailed opposers of the war -, -state and local governments, corporations, universities, and private citizens contributed as well to the climate of repression
-greatest target of abuse was the German American community
-campaign to purge society of all things german
American Expeditonary Force
the u.s force , led by general john Pershing, who fought with the allies in europe during ww1
flu epidemic of 1918
made worse by the close quarters of the war, it caused many deaths in the U.S. after the war, made worse by the close quarters of the war, it caused many deaths in the U.S. after the war - bodies of poor people lay unburied for a week; economy shut down - as many as 30 million died worldwide
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Sacco and Vanzetti
were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
A total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933, 18th amendment
The first commercial radio station in America (in Pittsburgh).
the prospects for commercial flight seemed dim until the 1920's, when this man's famous solo flight from New York to Paris electrified the nation and the world.
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
the great depression
a time period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
The New Deal
Was a series of economic programs passed by Congress during the first term of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States, from 1933 to his reelection in 1937. The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the 3 Rs: relief, recovery and reform. It attempted to improve the economy through large-scale spending on relief and reform.
Unemployed World War I veterans who came to Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand the immediate payment of the bonus congress had voted them in 1922. The veterans were forcibly removed from Anacostia Flats by federal troops under the command of Douglas MacArthur.
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