241 terms

USJ Science Vocabulary- Ecosystems, Weather, Body Systems & Motion & Design

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Energy
Ability to do work.
Distance
How far something moves.
Work
is only done when a force makes something move. Work = Force X distance Work is measured in Joules.
Parents -
An organism that produces or generates offspring
Inherited Traits -
Any characteristic that is passed from one generation to the next.
-synapse
- place where nerve messages are sent and received
trachea-
windpipe; passage from pharynx to lungs
platelets
- smallest blood cells to help form clots if you have an injury
Veins
- blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart
plasma
- contains blood's proteins, suspends blood cells
Atrium
- two upper chambers on each side of the heart, receives blood from veins and forces blood into ventricles
voluntary
- muscle whose action is controlled by the person (example: lifting an arm)
tendons
- connects muscle to bone
ulna
- forearm bone, located on the side opposite the thumb
vertebrae
_ bones in the spine
skeleton
framework that support the body
Salivary glands-
secretes (releases) saliva
fracture
- to break or crack
peristalsis-
Involuntary muscular actions that moves food along during digestion
Pancreas-
about 6" long, located behind the stomach, secretes insulin
Large intestine-
where stool (solid waste) accumulates
Digestion-
The process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body.
Occluded Front-
is formed during the process of cyclogenesis when a cold front overtakes a warm front. When this occurs, the warm air is separated from the cyclone center at the Earth's surface. In most cases storms weaken when this occurs.
Tornado-
It begins as a funnel cloud with spinning columns of air that drop down from a severe thunderstorm. When they reach the ground they become tornadoes. Tornadoes are between 300 and 2,000 feet wide and travel at speeds of 20 to 45 miles per hour. They usually only last a few minutes, but their spinning winds, up to 300 miles per hour, can lift houses into the air and rip trees from the ground.
Climate-
The average of all weather conditions through all season over a period of time. It describes the average weather conditions in a certain place or during a certain season. Weather may change from day to day, but climate changes only over hundreds or thousands of years. Many animals and plants need one kind of climate to survive. Dolphins and palm trees can live only in a warm climate, while polar bears and spruce trees need a cold climate.
Hurricane-
They are intense storms with swirling winds up to 150 miles per hour. Usually around 300 miles across, hurricanes are 1,000-5,000 times larger than tornadoes. Hurricanes are known by different names around the world. In Japan they are called Typhoons, while Australians call them Willy Willys.
Weather-
It describes the condition of the air at a particular time and place. Weather also tells how the air moves (wind) and describes anything it might be carrying such as rain, snow or clouds. Thunder, lightning, rainbows, haze and other special events are all part of weather.
Ph-Paper-
Used to determine the measure of its ph which tells the level of acidic, neutral or basic of a substance.
Producer
- any of the plants and algae that produce oxygen and food that the animals need.
Decomposers-
any of the fungi or bacteria that break down dead plant and animals into useful things like minerals and rich soil.
Ecosystem-
All the living and non-living things in an area and their interactions with each other.
Fungi
-members of a kingdom that contain one celled and many-celled living things that absorb food through their environment. A decomposer- mushrooms are an example.
Biome
-one of Earth's large ecosystems, whit its climate, soil, plants, and animals.
Consumers-
any animal that eats plants or eats other plant-eating animals.
Scavengers -
a meat eating animal that feeds on the remains of dead animals.
Habitat-
the place where a population lives.
Organisms-
living things that are capable of reacting to stimuli, reproduction and growth.
Taiga-
a cool, forest biome of conifers in the upper Northern Hemisphere.
Alfalfa-
a flowering plant in the pea family. Grown to feed livestock.
Elodea-
is a perennial aquatic plant often called water weeds. Often used in aquariums
.
Mustard-
a plant species that grows very small seeds that can be ground to use as a spice. The plant itself can be eaten as greens as well.
Wheat-
A world wide cultivated grass that is harvested and the seed is ground into flour to make bread. Second largest crop in the world.
Sun-
the source of all energy to our planet.
Tundra-
a cold, treeless biome of the far North, marked by spongy topsoil.
Symbiosis/Symbiotic-
a relationship between two kinds of organisms over time.
Acid Rain-
moisture that falls to the Earth after being mixed with wastes from burned fossil fuels.
Photosynthesis-
the food making process in green plants that uses sunlight.
Germination-
the sprouting of a seed into a new plant.
Population-
all the members of one species in an area.
Community-
all the populations living in one area.
Niche-
the role an organism has in its ecosystem.
Desert-
a sandy or rocky biome, with little precipitation and little plant life.
Food Chain-
the path of the energy in food from one organism to another.
Energy Pyramid-
An energy pyramid is the graphical representation of the levels (nutritional) by which the incoming solar energy is transferred into an ecosystem.
Competition-
active demand by two or more organisms or kinds of organisms for some environmental resource in short supply
Deciduous Forest-
a forest biome with many kinds of trees that lose their leaves each autumn.
Learned Behavior-
a learned behavior is a behavior that was observed by an individual that they find it to be beneficial to them in some way.
Increased Nutrients
added to the environment can create algae blooms which can choke out existing organisms in an aquatic ecosystem.
Extinct
-no longer exists. This organism will no longer be found alive on the earth.
Tropical Rainforest
-a hot, humid biome near the equator, with much rainfall and a wide variety of life.
Food Web
the overlapping food chains in an ecosystem.
Endangered
-a species threatened with extinction-anyone or anything whose continued existence is threatened-
Threatened
-having an uncertain chance of continued survival <a threatened species> specifically: likely to become an endangered species.
Pollutant
-an unnatural substance added to the Earth's land, water or air.
Grasslands-
a biome where grasses, not trees, are the main plant life. Prairies are one kind of grassland region.
Instinct
-a largely inheritable and unalterable tendency of an organism to make a complex and specific response to environmental stimuli without involving reason
abiotic factors
-nonliving parts of an ecosystem (sunlight, soil, temperature)
bacteria
-helps in the natural recycling process, a decomposer.
Estuary
-where fresh water and saltwater meet. (coastal area)
Biotic factors
-living components of an ecosystem (the organisms) existence is threatened.
Primary consumers
-use plants for energy (anything that eats plants) examples: deer, mice, rabbits, porcupines
Secondary Consumers
-get their energy from primary consumers.
Tertiary Consumers
-get their energy from secondary consumers.
Organisms
-Living things, individual living systems
Conservation
-sensible use of the earth's resources to avoid harming the environment.
Interdependence
-the relationship between plants and animals in an ecosystem.
Individual
a single member of a species
Instinct
a largely, inheritable and unalterable tendency of an organism to make a complex and specific response to environmental stimuli without reason.
Herbivores
a consumer that eats only plants
Inherited
Characteristics from parents
Omnivores
A consumer that eats both plants and animals
DNA
material in life forms that transfers genetic characteristics
Likeness
similarity
Carnivores
an organism that eats only meat
Trait
distinguishing characteristics
Characteristics
Quality of an organism
cell
The basic unit of life
multicellular
composed of many cells
unicellular
composed of one cell
permeable
able to pass through
Tissues
similar cells with specific function
Water Vapor
- water in a gaseous state diffused in the atmosphere but below boiling temperature.
Water Cycle
the cycle in which Earth's water moves through the environment.
Condensation
- the process by which a gas changed back into a liquid.
Evaporation
the process by which a liquid turns into a gas.
Clouds
- a visible collection of tiny water droplets or, at colder temperatures, ice crystals floating in the air above the surface. Clouds come in many different sizes and shapes. Clouds can form at ground level, which is fog, at great heights in the atmosphere, and everywhere in between. Clouds offer important clues to understanding and forecasting the weather.
Cirrus -
thin wispy clouds that form high in the atmosphere as their water vapor freezes into ice crystals. They do not produce precipitation.
Cumulus
Fluffy, mid-level clouds that develop in towering shapes and signal fair weather.
Stratus
Low-lying, gray and sheet like clouds that often produce drizzle.
Atmosphere
the layer of air that surrounds the Earth.
Forecast
to predict (the weather).
Air Pressure
the weight of air.
Humidity
the amount of water vapor present in a unit of volume of air. A hygroscope indicates the amount of humidity in the air
meteorologist
A scientist who studies and predicts the weather. Meteorologists use sophisticated equipment, like Doppler radar and supercomputers, but they also rely on old-fashioned sky watching.
Prevailing winds
- the global winds that blow constantly from the same direction.
Local winds
- the winds dependant on local changes in temperature.
Precipitation-
General name for water in any form falling from clouds. This includes rain, drizzle, hail, snow and sleet. Although, dew, frost and fog are not considered to be precipitation.
Solar Energy-
The energy of the sunlight.
Thermometer
- The instrument that measures temperature.
Temperature-
The measurement of how hot or cold something is.
Fog-
A cloud on the ground that reduces visibility.
Wind-
The movement of air relative to the surface of the earth. It's considered to be severe if 58 m.p.h. or greater. Hurricane winds are 74 m.p.h or greater and the highest tornado winds are about 318 m.p.h.
El Nino-
A short term climate change that occurs every two to ten years.
Global Warming-
The hypothesized rise in Earth's average temperature from excess carbon dioxide.
Greenhouse Effect-
process by which the Earth's atmosphere absorbs heat.
States of Matter-
*Solid - the state of matter that has a definite shape and volume - ice
*Liquid - the state of matter that has volume but takes the shape of the container - water
*Gas - the state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume - steam
Dew-
Water that forms on objects close to the ground when its temperature falls below the dew point of the surface air.
Weather Front-
is the area where two air masses with different temperatures and densities collide, but do not mix. The collision often causes storms and changeable weather
Warm Front-
forward edge of an advancing mass of warm air that replaces colder air, usually while causing steady precipitation
Stationary Front-
a collection of air masses, neither of which is strong enough to replace the other. On a weather map, this is shown by an inter-playing series of blue spikes pointing one direction and red domes pointing the other.
Cold Front-
a cold air mass is replacing a warmer air mass. They generally move from northwest to southeast. The air behind this front is noticeably colder and drier than the air ahead of it.
High Pressure System-
typically brings clear skies.
Low Pressure System-
Typically brings stormy weather, clouds and rain.
Anus-
where solid waste exits through the body
Appendix-
located near the small and large intestine, purpose unknown
Bile duct-
stores bile (yellow, green liquid from the liver)
Bile-
A bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, which aids in absorption and digestion, of fats.
Epiglottis-
located in the back of the mouth; prevents food and drink from entering the larynx
Esophagus-
muscular passage connecting the mouth and the stomach, rhythmic motion
Liver-
filters blood coming from the digestive tract, releases bile, helps take toxins (poisons) from chemicals in the body
Mouth-
where digestion begins
Pancreas-
about 6" long, located behind the stomach, secretes insulin
Rectum-
straight section of the intestine, ending in the anus, stores solid waste
Saliva-
watery fluid for tasting and swallowing food, chewing, keeping mouth moist
Small intestine-
The long, narrow, coiled section of the intestine that extends from the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine. Nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine.
Stomach
- organ in the digestive system that stores and digests food
Gastric acid-
Digestive secretions of the stomach glands consisting chiefly of hydrochloric acid, mucin and enzymes.
Tongue-
organ in the mouth; functions include eating, tasting, speaking
Diabetes-
A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by inadequate production or use of insulin, resulting in high glucose levels in the blood and urine, excessive urination and persistent thirst, as well as other complications such as infection and blindness.
ball/socket joint -
joint that allows twisting and turning movements; example: hip joint
bones
- forms the substance of a skeleton, support the body
cartilage
- flexible connective tissue
cranium
- skull
femur
- longest, largest, and strongest bone in the human body; located in the leg
framework
- supports, i.e. human skeleton
gliding joint
- joint that allows to flat bones to slide over each other; example: foot, wrist
hinge joint
- joint that allows movement in a certain spot, like the opening and closing of a door; example: elbow, knee, ankle
humerus
- long bone in arm extending from the shoulder to the elbow
immovable
- not able to be moved
joints- place where two parts are joined or united to allow motion
mandible
- jaw bone
patella
- flat moveable bone in the front of the knee, also known as the knee bone
pelvis-
funnel-shaped, part of skeleton supporting lower limbs
phalanges
- bones that make up the fingers or feet
radius
-bone of forearm on the thumb side
ribs-
bones that support and protect organs such as the lungs
scapula
shoulder blade
skull
- head bone
spine
- backbone
sternum
- breastbone
tibia
- shinbone
torso
- upper part of the body
bicep
- muscle at the front of the upper arm
cardiac muscle
- type of muscle in the heart
contract
- to draw together
endurance
- ability or strength to continue or last without becoming tired
exertion
- activity of using your muscles in various ways to keep fit
extend
- to increase in length
flex
- to bend
involuntary
- muscle controlled without thinking about it (pumping heart)
ligaments
- tissues that connect bones, hold organs in place
muscles
- tissues that cause motion in the body when contracted
resistance
- Exercise that involves working your muscles against free weights or your body's own weight (walking, running, pushups)
skeletal muscle
- muscle connected at either end with a bone
smooth muscle
- found in the walls of internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles
musculoskeletal
- muscular and skeletal systems
tricep
- muscle located at the back of the upper arm
Aerobic exercise
exercise that increases the need for oxygen
Aorta
- part of the heart, circulates blood from the heart to all of the body (except the lungs)
Anaerobic exercise-
exercise that builds muscles through tension
Arteries
- blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Capillaries
- small blood vessels between the ending of the arteries and the beginning of the veins
Blood vessels
any of the vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) through which the blood circulates
Cardiac
- relating to the heartHeart- organ (consisting of four chambers) that circulates blood, divided into four chambers (valves)
Circulation
- flowing (such as the flow of blood throughout the body)
Pulmonary artery
transports blood from the heart to the lungs
Heart rate
- number of heartbeats in one minute
red blood cells
- carries oxygen to your body
Pulse
- regular throbbing of arteries caused by heart contractions
White blood cells
- fight off infections and diseases
cholesterol
found in animal tissues, too much can lead to heart disease
Ventricles
- located in the heart, left and right, pumps blood to the entire body
air sac-
air-filled spaces in the body.
alveoli-
very small air sacs; where air breathed in goes.
bronchial tubesd
- two tubes at the end of the trachea, brings in air from trachea and helps clean lungs; one tube goes to right lung, one to left.
diaphragm-
sheet-like muscle separating the chest from the abdominal cavity; creates suction to draw in air and expand lungs.
exhale-
to breathe out.
inhale-
to breathe in.
larynx-
voice box
lungs-
two respiratory organs.
nasal passages (nasal cavity)-
helps with inhaling and exhaling of air through the nose.
pharynx-
throat; collects incoming air from the nose and passes air to the trachea.
respiration-
inhaling and exhaling air, breathing.
ribs-
bones that protect and support the chest.
sinuses- .
hollow spaces in the bones of the head, helps regulate temperature of air breathed in.
atrophy
- to waste away or decrease in size
Autonomic Nervous system-
system of nerves that control involuntary functions
axon-
part of neuron that takes information away from a cell body
brain-
controls mental and physical actions, located in the cranium (skull)
brain stem-
part of brain near spinal cord; controls reflexes, breathing, and heartbeat
cerebellum
large portion of the brain, controls voluntary motions
cerebrum-
largest part of the brain, controls voluntary movements and mental actions
dendrites-
part of a neuron that brings information to a cell body
nerves-
bundle of fibers that send impulses from the brain to other parts of the body
neurons
- specialized, impulse-conducting cells (composed of cell body, axon, dendrites)
peripheral nervous system
- lies outside brain and spinal cord, includes nerves to arms, legs, and sense organs
relay-
to transmit a signal
signals-
messages sent from brain to nerves
spinal cord
cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal column
stimuli
something that causes an action (example-stimulus: hot stove, response: moving hand away from hot stove)
spinal nerve-
nerves that start in the spinal cord
Physical change -
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
Chemical change -
a change in the chemical; /atomic make up of a substance. It is no longer the same. (burning a match)
Convection
- occurs when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the liquid or gas. Cooler liquid or gas then takes the place
of the warmer areas which have risen higher. This results in a continuous circulation pattern.
Conduction-
Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other.
Thermal energy -
is the internal energy of an object due to the kinetic energy of its atoms and/or molecules.
Radiation- :
Electromagnetic waves that directly transport ENERGY through space. Sunlight is an example
Offspring
- The organism or organisms resulting from reproduction.
Generation -
stage in succession of descent; for example, father, son, and grandson are three generations.
Friction
A force that resists movement between two objects that are touching.
Gravity
A force of attraction between any two masses. The strength of this force is dependent on the mass of each object and their distance from one another.
Inertia
The tendency of a moving object to stay in motion or a resting object to stay still is inertia.
Force
A push or a pull. A force is also needed to make a moving object slow down, change direction or stop moving.
Potential Energy
Stored energy that can be released to become other forms of energy.
Kinetic Energy
energy associated with motion
Perpetual motion
The term perpetual motion, refers to movement that goes on forever.
Speed
A measure of how fast something is moving. How far an object can go in a certain amount of time.
Unbalanced Forces
initiate and influence movement.
Balanced Forces
When an object is at rest it is balanced.
Momentum
The rate of acceleration. Momentum = Mass x Velocity
Acceleration
Acceleration is a vector quantity which is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity.
Motion
the state in which one objects distance from another is changing.