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Biology Module 2 DBA Review Part 2
Terms in this set (15)
Things I Should Know About ATP
-The cell can store or release energy by adding or removing the phosphate group.
-The ability to form or break this bond makes ATP a renewable resource within the cell.
ATP is best suited for short-term energy storage because it is too unstable for long-term storage.
When cells need to store chemical energy in a more stable form, they use the energy from ATP to build more stable molecules.
Stable Molecules Formed From ATP
-A process that uses oxygen to harvest the chemical energy stored in organic molecules.
There are two types of respiration:
1. Aerobic respiration, which uses oxygen.
2. Anaerobic respiration, which does not use oxygen.
1. It is part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
2. It splits glucose, a 6-carbon compound, into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules.
3. It uses two ATP molecules but ends up forming four ATP molecules. This gives a net gain of two ATP molecules.
4. It takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
5. It does not require oxygen.
Stages of Cellular Respiration
1. Glycolysis is anaerobic (does not require oxygen) and occurs in the cytoplasm.
2. Krebs cycle is aerobic (require oxygen) and occur inside the cell's mitochondria.
3. Electron transport chain is aerobic (require oxygen) and occurs inside the cell's mitochondria.
1. Pyruvate is broken down into a two-carbon compound before entering the Krebs cycle, releasing one CO2 molecule.
2. It forms two more CO2 molecules for each turn of the Krebs cycle.
3. It produces two ATP molecules for each turn of the Krebs cycle.
4. It sends energy-rich NADH and FADH2 molecules to the electron transport chain, but it does not send any carbon compounds on to the next stage.
5. It occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.
6. It does not directly use oxygen, but it can only occur when oxygen is present. This means it is considered an aerobic process.
Electron Transport Chain
1. It produces significantly more ATP than any other stage of cellular respiration.
2. It uses the high-energy electrons stored in NADH and FADH2.
3. It occurs at the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
4. It requires oxygen, and that oxygen is used to make water molecules.
5. It reforms NAD+ and FAD, which are sent back to participate in earlier stages of respiration.
Glycolysis can still occur without oxygen, but it would be followed by an anaerobic reaction called
Two Types of Fermentation:
1. Alcoholic Fermentation
2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
A process in which plants and some bacteria are able to absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy.
Summary of Light-Dependent Reactions
-Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and transfers it to high-energy electrons that are carried through a series of proteins called the electron transport chain.
-NADP+ molecules accept high-energy electrons to form NADPH. NADPH carries the electrons and their energy to the next phase, the light-independent reactions.
-Oxygen gas is released and ATP molecules are formed. ATP transfers to the light-independent reactions to provide energy for the next phase.
Summary of Light-Independent Reactions:
1. The light-independent reactions can also be called the Calvin cycle.
2. This cycle of reactions uses six molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single six-carbon glucose molecule.
3. ATP and NADPH, produced during the light-dependent reactions, provide the energy needed for the light-independent reactions to occur.
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
-Together, these two processes work together to:
1. harvest the energy from sunlight,
2. package it into chemical molecules,
3. and break down those molecules to power the growth, movement, and functions of all organisms and their cells.
-Photosynthesis converts solar energy to stored chemical energy, and cellular respiration converts that stored chemical energy to ATP, an energy molecule used directly by the cell.
-These two processes help cycle important molecules in our atmosphere.
-Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releases oxygen gas. Cellular respiration uses oxygen gas and releases carbon dioxide.
-Photosynthesis happens in plants, algae, and some bacteria, whereas cellular respiration (or fermentation) occurs in all organisms.
Who came up with the word cells?
A shade-tolerant plant that is provided its preferred wavelength of light, but only minimal amounts of water, would likely experience
What type of proteins carry out active transport
Synapsis is the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I.
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