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When an organism responds to a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus

Positive Reinforcement

Rewarding consequences that follow a behavior


The conditioned response lessens in strength when the unconditioned stimulus stops being presented

Fixed-Ratio Schedule

Reinforcement that depends on a specified quantity of responses

Variable-Ratio Schedule

The number of responses needed for reinforcement changes


The process of reinforcement used to sculpt new responses from old ones

Unconditioned Stimulus

An event that leads to a certain, predictable response

Conditioned Stimulus

An event that, after training, leads to a learned response

Conditioned Response

A learned response

Classical Conditioning

Conditioning that results when a person's old response becomes attached to a new stimulus

Operant Conditioning

Learning from the consequence of behavior

Cognitive Learning

The mental processes involved in learning

Aversive Control

Conditioning that results from unpleasant consequences

Behavior Modification

Systematic application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings

Avoidance Conditioning

Conditioning in which a person's behavior prevents an unpleasant situation from occuring

Cognitive Map

A mental picture learned from repeated experience and exploration


Learning resulting from observation and imitation

Escape Conditioning

Conditioning that causes an unpleasant event to stop

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