Chemistry/AP Bio Table 3.1 terms

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hydroxyl
alcohol
ethanol, glycerol, sugar
acetyl
polar, acidic
-COCH3
some proteins, coenzymes
aldehyde
polar, reactive
-CHO
simple sugars
amide
weakly basic, stable, rigid
-C(O)N-
proteins, nucleotide bases
carboxyl
very acidic
-COOH
fatty acids, amino acids
carbonyl
polar, reactive
-CO
alcohols, other functional groups
ketone
polar, acidic
-CO-
simple sugars, nucleotide bases
methyl
non polar
-CH3
fatty acids, some amino acids
sulfhydryl
forms rigid disulfide bonds
-SH
cysteine, many cofactors
phosphate
polar, reactive
-PO4
nucleotides, DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins
amine
very basic
-NH2
nucleotide bases, amino acids