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Consumer Behavior Exam 2
Terms in this set (95)
"I really like my iPad" -What attitude is this?
"I always buy Apple products" -What attitude is this?
"My iPad helps me to study"-What attitude is this?
Relatively enduring overall evaluations of objects, products, services, issues, or people.
Standard Learning Hierarchy
Results in strong brand loyalty
Assumes high consumer involvement
Consumer does not have strong brand preference
Consumers forms evaluation only after trial
Consumer acts on limited knowledge
Consumers' hedonic motivations and moods
Consumers act on the basis of emotional reactions
Attitude-Toward-the-Object (ATO) Model
The_____ Model proposes that three key elements be assessed to understand and predict consumer behavior.
-Consumer beliefs about salient attributes
-Strength of the consumer belief
-Evaluation of the attribute
A-T-O Model sometimes referred to as-
poor ratings on one attribute are compensated for by higher ratings on another attribute.
e= _______ on Fishbein model
b=______ on Fishbein model
1 is _____ on Fishbein model weight
Behavioral Intentions Model
Sometimes referred to as the theory of reasoned action.
Differs from the attitude-toward-the-object model:
Focuses on intentions to act in some way rather than just attitudes.
Adds a component assessing consumers' perceptions of what other people think they should do (subjective norm-SN).
Focuses on attitude towards the behavior of buying rather than the attitude towards the object.
Time, Environment, Impulse Situations,Specificity of attitude measured
Factors that weaken attitude-behavior relationship
Refers to specific attempts to change attitudes.
Behavioral influence approach
Changing Schema-Based Affect
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Balance Theory approach
Social Judgment Theory approach
Change Beliefs, Add beliefs about new attributes, Change evaluations (Type of approach)
Behavioral Influence Approach
Directly changing behaviors without first attempting to change either beliefs or attitudes.
Changing Schema-Based Affect
Schemas change affective and emotional meanings. If the affect of the schema can be changed, then the attitude toward the brand or product should change as well.
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Illustrates how attitudes are changed based on differing levels of consumer involvement.
Level of involvement and motivation to process a message determines which route by which persuasion occurs:
High involvement - Central route
Low involvement - Peripheral route
Consumers are motivated to maintain perceived consistency in the relations found in mental systems. Everything needs to be in balance. Think a celeb you like promoting a product you like.
human beings prefer consistency among their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.
Focuses on the associations, or relations (referred to either as sentiment relations or unit relations), that are perceived between a person (or observer), another person, and an attitudinal object (triad).
The appeal of a message and its construction.
Characteristics of the person or character delivering a message
The prevalence of sexual appeals varies from country to country
Nudity/undressed models in print ads generates negative feelings/tension among same-sex consumers
Erotic ad content draws attention, but strong sexual ad imagery may make consumers less likely to:
Buy a product (unless product is related to sex)
Process and recall ad's content
Over time, disliked sources can still get a message across effectively
We "forget" about negative source while changing our attitudes
There's a saying in public relations that "any publicity is good publicity." Do you agree?
Relevant qualifications of source to the product can enhance credibility of message
Consumer beliefs about product can be weakened by a source perceived to be biased
Reporting bias ("hired gun")
commonly held societal beliefs that define what is socially gratifying.
_______ is everywhere and ultimately explains the habits and idiosyncrasies of all groups of consumers.
______ is hierarchical. (same word)
refers to a culture existing at a lower level than overall
Rule that specifies the appropriate behavior in a a given situation within a specific culture.
Penalty associated with performing a non-gratifying or culturally inconsistent behavior.
Core societal values (CSV), or cultural values
represent a commonly agreed upon consensus about the most preferable ways of living within a society.
Dimensions of Cultural Values
Individualism, Masculinity, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Long-Term Orientation
look to neighboring countries (Type of distance)
represents how disparate one nation is from another in terms of their CSVs. (Type of distance)
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
learning your own culture
learning someone else's culture
belief among consumers that their ethnic group and native products are superior to other ethnic groups and their products.Some governments censor the Internet content from its citizens.
Consumers' behaviors slowly adapt to a culture through a series of rewards and sanctions.
A process of imitating others' behavior.
The transfer of information through either the literal spoken or written word.
Communication not involving the literal spoken or written word.
exists when two phrases share the same precise meaning in two different cultures.
the state in which consumers are shown to use numbers to represent quantities the same way across cultures.
Brazil, Russia, India, and China
Refers to the combined market and business potential of China and India.
Represents the idea that
marketing strategy may be
global but the implementation
of that strategy at the
marketing tactics level should
The inner reasons or driving forces behind human action as consumers are driven to address real needs.
Human motivations are oriented toward two key groups of behavior
the body naturally reacts in a way so as to maintain a constant, normal blood stream.
changing one's current state to a level that is more ideal
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Physiological - basic survival.
Safety and Security - need to be secure and protected.
Belongingness and Love - need to feel like a member of a family or community.
Esteem - need to be recognized as a person of worth.
Self-actualization - need for personal fulfillment.
Safety and Security
need to be secure and protected
Belongingness and Love
need to feel like a member of a family or community
need to be recognized as a person of worth
need for personal fulfillment
desire to acquire products that can be used to accomplish things.
desire to experience something personally gratifying.
Psychobiological reactions to appraisals.
because they involve psychological processing and physical responses.
certain feeling states are tied to behavior in a very direct way.
Cognitive Appraisal Theory
Describes how specific types of thoughts can serve as a basis for specific emotions.
a transient (temporary and changing) and general affective state.
the value of a target is influenced in a consistent way by one's mood.
represents the feelings a consumer has about a particular product or activity
automatically recorded based on either automatic visceral reactions or neurological brain activity.
require consumers to recall their affect state from a recent experience or to state the affect they are feeling at a given point in time.
positive affect negative affect scale
deep personal interest which evokes strongly felt feelings simply from the thoughts or behavior associated with some object or activity.
State of flow
extremely high emotional involvement in which a consumer is engrossed in an activity
- the extent to which a consumer shows outward behavioral signs and otherwise reacts obviously to emotional experiences
one's awareness of the emotions experienced in a situation and the ability to control reactions to these emotions.
memories of previous, meaningful events in one's life.
workers have to overtly manage their own emotional displays as part of the requirements of the job.
The totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions, and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he or she adapts to his or her environment.
"human behavior is influenced by an inner struggle between various systems within the personality system." -
a distinguishable characteristic that describes one's tendency to act in a relatively consistent manner.
Refer to the ways consumers live and spend their time and money.
Refers to the totality of thoughts and feelings that an individual has about him or her self.
Proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the congruence (match) between a consumer's self-concept and the image of typical users of a focal product.
Recommended textbook explanations
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Psychology: Principles in Practice
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Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
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