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Terms in this set (71)
the science of heredity
the genetic information contained in the cell; includes its chromosomes and plasmids
structures containing DNA that physically carry hereditary information; they carry the genes
segments of DNA that code for functional products
the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
genetic makeup of an organism; represents potential properties, but not the properties themselves
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up; the actual expressed properties of an organism
the branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences)
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
DNA replication in which each of the parental strands is read to make a complementary daughter strand, thus each new DNA molecule is composed of half the parental molecule paired with a newly synthesized strand.
Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized
Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
redundancy of the genetic code; that is, most amino acids are encoded by several codons
61 of the 64 codons that code for amino acids (the stop codons do not encode aa)
also called stop codons, do not code for amino acids. Instead they (UAA, UAG, and UGA) signal the end of the protein molecule's synthesis.
short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.
a non-coding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene
small nuclear ribonucleoproteins
(snRNPs) recognize splice sites; are composed of RNA, protein molecules at the end of introns, they are located in the cell nucleus, the RNA within it is called a (snRNA) or small nuclear RNA, forms part of spliceosomes
the regulatory mechanism that inhibits gene expression and decreases synthesis of enzymes
A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene. The default position of a repressible gene is ON.
the process that turns on the transcription of a gene or genes
the substance that acts to induce transcription of a gene. The default position of an inducible gene is OFF.
a segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene
usually off, but can be stimulated (induced) when a specific small molecule interacts with a regulatory protein (example lac operon)
transcription is usually on, but can be inhibited (repressed) when a specific small molecule binds allosterically to a regulatory protein (example tryptophan)
a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
Secondary chemical messenger that directs the synthesis of protein by ribosomes, (cAMP) cyclic adenosine monophosphate, accumulates when glucose is scarce, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a regulator of some bacterial operons [binds to catabolite activator protein (CAP)]
•Glucose is easiest sugar to digest (catabolize)
-If glucose is present, lac operon not transcribed
•nor other sugar operons
-Presence of glucose affects signal inside cell
•Lowers amount of cAMP
•High glucose → low cAMP & vice versa
Change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
A type of point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
a mutation that results in the substitution of an amino acid in a protein
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
Types of mutations that result from insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide into the normal DNA sequence.
random change in the DNA due to errors in replication that occur without known cause
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
a type of chemical mutagen that is structurally similar to the normal nucleosides in nucleic acids but with altered base-pairing properties
repair enzymes that can replace damaged DNA by separating the linked thymines
nucleotide excision repair
The process of removing and then correctly replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide.
adds a methyl group to selected bases after DNA strand is made, repair endonuclease cuts the nonmethylated strand
The probability of a gene mutating during or between DNA replications
positive (direct) selection
a procedure for picking out mutant cells by growing them; involves the detection of mutant cells by rejection of the un-mutated parent cells
Ex. Penicillin Resistant
negative (indirect) selection
The process of identifying mutations by selecting cells that do not grow using replica plating.
The process of growing bacteria on an agar plate, then transferring a replica of that growth to other plates using a sterile velvet pad. The replica plates usually contain different antibiotics. Analysis of growth patterns on the replica plates gives information about the genetic properties of the growing bacteria.
A mutant microorganism that has a nutritional requirement that is absent in the parent
substances that cause cancer
a procedure using bacteria to identify potential carcinogens
the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents
the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes
vertical gene transfer
genes are passed from an organism to offspring; bacteria can use this when they undergo binary fission; only plants and animals uses this
horizontal gene transfer
transfer of genes between cells of the same generation
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
alterations in the cell wall that make it permeable to large DNA molecules
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another
a virus that infects bacteria
A 'packaging' event. Lytic phage infects bacterium, leading to cleavage of bacterial DNA and synthesis of viral proteins. Parts of bacterial chromosomal DNA may become packaged in viral capsid. Phage infects another bacterium, transferring these genes.
only specific small portions of the bacterial chromosome can be transferred to a recipient
plasmids that encode for proteins of the sex pilus and other transfer proteins
Code for enzymes that trigger the catabolism of certain unusual sugars and hydrocarbons
proteins produced by bacteria to kill other microbes
resistance factors (R factors)
plasmids that have significant medical importance; these include bacteria that acquire resistance to antibiotics by the spread of genes from one organism to another.
resistance transfer factor (RTF)
a group of genes for replication and conjugation on the R factor
A group of genes for antibiotic resistance on R Factors; it codes for the production of enzymes that inactivate certain drugs or toxic substances
Small region of DNA that can move from one region on a chromosome to another; these pieces of DNA are 700-40,000 base pairs long
insertion sequences (IS)
the smallest unit of DNA that can hop from one DNA site to another by itself, recombination is mediated by the enzyme, transposase, each IS is bordered by a repeating sequence (~20 bases long) at its ends
Recommended textbook explanations
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
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