Western Civ to 1500 Exam Three Dietz
Terms in this set (90)
River in which Romulus and Remus were floated down. Along this river is where Rome was founded.
Era of the Seven Kings
753 BCE-509 BCE
Prosperous society, major influence on Romans and development of Rome. Assimilation into Roman society in 396 BCE.
Beginning place for the Romans.
Romulus and Remus
Earliest Roman story that tells story of descendants of Rome. King got prophecy that wife would have twins and they would overthrow him. When wife gave birth to twins, put them in basket and floated them down the river. Wolf heard their cry and raised them. Romulus kills Remus and establishes Rome where wolf found them. Romans tell story that they are independent warriors who can survive no matter what.
Site of largest temple in Italy, built by Romans; Religious sanctuary for Jupiter.
Romans drained swampy lowlands and created forum; this was the site of many monuments and buildings, as well as where markets were and assemblies took place.
Tarquin the Proud
King of Rome, son was Sextus Tarquinius
Wife of Conlatinus, raped by Sextus Tarquinius and committed suicide; event responsible for end of kings rule in Rome and beginning of republic
"Republic" from 509 BCE-27 BCE. There was a 200 year period known as the struggle of orders where everyone tried to come up with a political system.
One year term- Two at a time, alternated rule monthly. At the top of Rome's political hierarchy. Highest honor Roman citizen could aspire for. Had power to call senate and public assembly to meet. Oversaw elections. Had right to veto bills. Were responsible for reading omens and deciding public holidays. Held ultimate command over military.
Lifelong term- 300 people. Considered the most prestigious position. Highest ranking senator was Princeps Senatus, or "first senator" Consuls actually thrived to be senators.
Where the senators met.
5 year position. In charge of who was senator. Took census. Could cross senators off the list.
One year Representatives of the assembly of the people to the senate.
Six month terms- Only for TIMES OF EMERGENCY
"Ranking of the Offices"
"Way of the Elders" or "Ancestral Custom"; unspoken code from which ancient Romans derived their social norms.
Phoenecian Colony, conflict with Romans begain in Sicily over Romans conquering areas. Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage.
First Punic War
264-241 BCE- Romans win and take over Sicily
Second Punic War
218-201 BCE- Hannibal gets idea to attack Italy by land. Hannibal continues to lose battles. Enlists help of Macedonians and makes emergency decrees. Scipio (Roman General) attacks North Africa. Romans win Battle of Zama. Hannibal surrenders and negotiates peace. Carthage is forced to submit to peace treaty. Romans go and take over Macedonia.
Third Punic War
149-146 BCE- Peace Treaty created after 2nd Punic War. Senate decided to take out carthage. Really not a war, just Carthage destruction. Many Romans point to this as event when things started to go bad.
Leading general for Carthage during Second Punic Wars. Gave Rome a great fight, but ultimately defeated by Scipio Africanus. Fled to the Middle East, committed suicide to avoid capture.
Roman general during the Second Punic War. Defeated Hannibal and was given the name "Scipio Africanus".
Battle of Zama
202 BCE- Final battle of Second Punic War. Romans won and forced Hannibal to surrender.
Idea of justice is that there is a perfect justice and we have a reflection of that.
Allegory of the Cave
Plato's. Truth is up there. Imagine cave with prisoners and they only see whats in front of them. That's all they know. One day one Is released and sees it from different perspective. Prisoners would think his stories are insane and kill him.
Came from Macedonia. Rebels against Plato and his thoughts after years of studying with him. Set up rival school. Determined democracy was best form of government, contradicting Plato.
Rival school of Plato's academy set up by Aristotle.
Philip of Macedon
United Macedonians against foreigners. Married Olympias. 338 BCE conquered southern Greece (along with teenage Alexander).
Wife of Philip of Macedon.
Alexander the Great
Took over as king of Macedonia in 336 BCE after Philip of Macedon's assassination. 334 invades Persian Empire. Establishes Alexandria. Age 22. Marries bactrian princess Roxanne. 10,000 mile conquest over 10 years. Dies 323 BCE at age 32.
Bactrian princess; wife of Alexander the Great
One of successors of Alexander the Great.
Name of those occupying region that Antigonus took over after Alexander the Great.
One of successors of Alexander the Great.
Name of those occupying region that Seleucus took over after Alexander the Great.
Successor of Alexander the Great that lasted the longest. He was also most successful of the three.
Name of those occupying region that Ptolemy took over. Lasted the longest of the three.
THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
Six women chosen between ages 7 and 12 or 13. Each served 30 year terms. Main duty was to keep fire from going out in Temple of Vesta. At the end of term, had very high Roman status. Could marry whoever you want.Anyone who touched vestal could be put to death, but if fire went out they were put to death.
Springtime Fertility Festival. Happened in Spring. Crazy parades and goat sacrifices. CELEBRATING mom of Romulus and Remus.
Highest priest in ancient Rome. Had power over Vestals. Part of Corsus Honorum.
One of the household gods. Ancestors*
Name of the father of the family. Important legal position- property belonged to father. Property went to oldest son. Control over life and death- LOTS OF POWER>
Women must stay indoors. No excessive mourning. No makeup or jewelry. After time of crisis, women got law repealed because it isn't custom of ancestors.
Mother was daughter of Skippio Africana, Cornelia. Tiberius becomes tribune in 133 BCE, rep. of assembly to people. He took it very seriously and he got land reform passed. He was so successful he ran again. He was killed by an angry mob while walking to work. BEGINNING OF POLITICAL MURDER
10 years later runs for tribune like brother. Also gets assassinated before he gets to be tribune. Everyone in shock. Importance of military is increasing.
138-78 BCE. Senate recalled him from Frontier in 88 BCE. He said no and marched against Rome with his army. Senators were first to die. Became dictator, retiring 10 years later and dying peacefully.
Gladiator in city of Kapwa. Leads a rebellion with gladiators lasting 3 years.
Roman slaves trained to fight against each other for show
General that helped Crassus crush slave rebellion in 70 BCE.
General that helped Pompey crush slave rebellion in 70 BCE.
Young general famous for conquering Gaul. Shared power with Pompey and Crassus. Eventually becomes lone dictator.
Began in 60 BCE, sharing of power between Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus. Crassus dies in battle in 55 BCE and two consuls remain. Pompey marries Caesar's daughter, but when she dies their ties are severed. They go to civil war from 49-45 BCE. Pompey tries to get help of Ptolemy 12th, who KILLS HIM. Caesar kills Ptolemy in retaliation.
Sister of Ptolemy 12th. Caesar kills Ptolemy and named Cleopatra dictator of Egypt in 48 BCE.
Ides of March
March 15, 44 BCE Caesar is assassinated by senators led by Brutus and Cassius while walking to Forum.
Tries to calm things down after the Ides of March. He supported Caesar's assassination. Spoke high style Latin. Convinced Marc Antony to join him and calm people of Rome.
Joins Cicero in calming Romans after Ides of March. Caesar's will is read after death and we find out he adopted his great nephew. Eventually becomes part of second triumvirate.
3 year old son of Caesar that mysteriously ends up dying.
18 year old grandnephew of Caesar who was adopted through his will and made heir to the estate. Surprises everyone and reaches out to Mark Antony saying they should join forces and find who killed Caesar. Civil war breaks out again, and Cicero is killed and beheaded by soldiers.
Leader of the veterans. Joins forces with Octavian and Mark Antony to form second Triumvirate.
43 BCE. Lepidus tries to get troops to march against Octavian, turning Triumvirate into two man rule. Mark Antony forced to divorce his wife and marry sister of Octavian.
Sister of Octavian, forced to marry Mark Antony. Travelled to Europe with Mark Antony, but is sent home alone once Mark Antony meets Cleopatra.
Formerly Octavian. 31 BCE- 14 AD. Changed name, not a Roman name. Responsible for "Restoring Republic" of Rome.
Title given to Rome's oldest senator. Augustus CLAIMS IT.
Old title given to general who does a great job. Augustus takes power over MILITARY with this name.
Pontifex Maximus (Cont.)
Claimed by Augustus, giving him power over religion and morality.
Name Augustus claimed that gave him power over LIFE, DEATH, and PROPERTY.
Set up for Augustus, ONE DUTY WAS TO PROTECT HIM.
Almost 200 year reign of peace, no civil warfare, beginning under Augustus.
To Bring under Roman influence or authority.
Herod the Great
King of Judea, many considered him a puppet to the Romans. Upon his death, Augustus decides Judea will be under Roman rule.
Built by Herod, heavily fortified. Site of where Jewish rebels made their last stand. ALL COMMITTED SUICIDE HERE
Coined later on by Christians. Roman polytheism.
Worship of the living emperor. Started with Augustus, only in provinces. Romans DUTY WAS TO WORSHIP gods/EMPEROR
Tunic, pants, clothing of Persian. One of lesser gods in Persian Zoroastrianism. MALE ONLY. Cult was particularly popular among Roman soldiers. Seven steps of initiation. One of most famous mythraehs was in San Clemente in Rome
Goddess worshipped by the mystery cults. Egyptian. Members were both male and female. It was gender segregated. Made it clear that Romans were looking for different types of relationships with the gods. Polytheism. Participation in these cults did not mean they did not participate in Roman religion
"Legal Duty" Jews did not have to participate in provinces- they were allowed to participate in monotheistic worship.
Led by rabbis- went inside building, no statues. Male teachers. Place of prayer and assembly.
Leader of synagogues- religious teachers. MALE
"Annointed". At end of time, Messiah will come. Notion of endtime came to a head during and after Herod.
Jesus of Nazareth
Not from a big city. Preached about endtime in environment that was about to explode. Healer, Miracle worker, preacher, Spoke Aramaic, Executed by Romans- Crucifixion
Specific movement around Jesus while he is ALIVE. Fully within Jerusalem. Aramaic movement.
Roman prefect in Jerusalem. Judge of trial of Jesus, ordered his crucifixion
A Roman execution method; miserable and humiliating. Form of execution used to murder Jesus Christ.
Paul of Tarsus
Educated Jewish Roman citizen. Wrote, spoke in Greek, Urban movement. Brought movement to cities. Early Christianity spreads in urban cities. Gentile audience. Travels of Paul48-58 CE. Arrest and death 58-62 CE.
"Christ" in Greek.
Followers of Christianity and the Jesus Movement. No gender restrictions. Equality of believers.
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