Upgrade to remove ads
AP Gov Unit 4
Terms in this set (23)
Public opinion is measured through scientific polling, and the results of public opinion polls influence public policies and institutions.
Describe the elements of a scientific poll.
The media's report of public opinion data that can impact elections and policy debates is affected by such scientific polling types and methods as:
▶ Type of poll (opinion polls, benchmark or tracking polls, entrance and exit polls)
▶ Sampling techniques, identification of respondents, mass survey or focus group, sampling error
▶ Type and format of questions
Explain how public opinion polling and polling results impact elections, political behavior,
and policy process.
The media's use of polling results to convey popular levels of trust and confidence in government can impact elections by turning such events into "horse races" based more on popularity and factors other than qualifications and platforms of candidates.
Evaluate the quality and credibility
of claims based on public opinion data.
The relationship between scientific polling and elections and policy debates is affected by the:
▶ Importance of public opinion as a source of political influence in a given election or policy debate
▶ Reliability and veracity of public opinion data
The various forms of media provide citizens with political information and influence the ways in which they participate politically.
Describe the media's role as a linkage institution.
New communication technologies and advances in social media have profoundly influenced how citizens routinely acquire political information, including news events, investigative journalism, election coverage, and political commentary.
Explain how increasingly diverse choices of media and communication outlets influence political institutions and behavior.
-The rapidly increasing demand for media and political communications outlets from an ideologically diverse audience have led to debates over media bias and the impact of media ownership
and partisan news sites.
-The nature of democratic debate and the level of political knowledge among citizens is impacted by:
▶ Increased media choices
▶ Ideologically oriented programming
▶ Consumer-driven media outlets and emerging technologies that reinforce existing beliefs
▶ Uncertainty over the credibility of news sources and information
Political parties, interest groups, and social movements provide opportunities for participation and influence how people relate to government.
Describe the linkage functions of political parties and explain how parties impact the electorate and the government.
a:The functions and impact of political parties on the electorate and government are represented by:
▶ Mobilization and education of voters
▶ Party platforms
▶ Candidate recruitment
▶ Campaign management, including fundraising and media strategy
.b:The committee and party leadership systems in legislatures influence the ability of political parties to carry out citizen preferences in government decision making.
Explain why and how political parties change and adapt.
a: Parties have adapted to candidate-centered campaigns, and their role in nominating candidates has been weakened.
b:The structure of parties has been influenced by:
▶ Regional realignments
▶ Campaign finance law
▶ Changes in communication and data-management technology
c: Parties use communication technology and voter-data management to disseminate, control, and clarify political messages and enhance outreach and mobilization efforts.
Explain how structural barriers impact third-party and independent- candidate success.
a: In comparison to proportional systems, winner-take-all voting districts serve as a structural barrier to third-party and independent candidate success.
b:The incorporation of third-party agendas into platforms of major political parties serves
as a barrier to third-party and independent candidate success.
Describe the benefits and potential problems of interest-group influence on elections
and policy making.
a: Interest groups may represent very specific or more general interests, and can educate voters
and office holders, draft legislation, and mobilize membership to apply pressure on and work with legislators and government agencies.
b: In addition to working within party coalitions, interest groups exert influence through long-standing relationships with bureaucratic agencies, Congressional committees, and other interest groups; such relationships are described as "iron triangles" and issue networks and they help interest groups exert influence across political party coalitions.
c: Interest group influence may be impacted by:
▶ Inequality of resources
▶ Unequal access to decision makers
▶ "Free rider" problem
d: Different types of political action committees (PACs) influence elections and policy making through fundraising and spending.
Explain how various political actors influence public policy outcomes.
a: Single-issue groups, ideological/social movements, and protest movements form with the goal of impacting society and policy making.
b: Competing actors such
as interest groups, professional organizations, social movements, the military, and bureaucratic agencies influence policy making, such as
the federal budget process, at key stages and to varying degrees.
c: Elections and political parties are related to major policy shifts or initiatives, occasionally leading to political realignments of voting constituencies.
Although laws and amendments have expanded voting rights in the U.S., voting participation varies
widely from election to election.
Describe the voting rights protections in the Constitution
and in legislation.
Legal protections found in federal legislation and the 15th, 17th,19th, 24th, and 26th Amendments relate to the expansion of opportunities for political participation.
Describe the roles that individual choice and state laws play in voter turnout in elections.
a: Structural barriers, political efficacy, and demographics can predict differences in voter turnout in the U.S., and the following can influence voter turnout among democracies worldwide:
▶ National versus state- controlled elections
▶ Voter registration laws and procedures
▶ Voting incentives or penalties or fines
▶ Election type (mid-term or presidential)
b: Demographic characteristics and political efficacy or engagement are used to predict the likelihood of whether an individual will vote.
Describe factors that influence voter choices.
Factors influencing voter choice include:
▶ Party identification and ideological orientation
▶ Candidate characteristics
▶ Contemporary political issues
▶ Religious beliefs or affiliation, gender, race and ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics
Describe different models of voting behavior.
Examples of political models explaining voting behavior include:
▶ Rational choice - Voting based on what is perceived to be in the citizen's individual interest
▶ Retrospective voting - Voting
to decide whether the party or candidate in power should be re- elected based on the recent past
▶ Prospective voting - Voting based on predictions of how a party or candidate will perform in the future
▶ Party-line voting - Supporting a party by voting for candidates from one political party for all public offices
at the same level of government
The impact of federal policies on campaigning and electoral rules continues to be contested by both sides of the political spectrum.
Explain how the different processes work in a U.S. federal election.
The process and outcomes in U.S. federal elections are impacted by:
▶ Open and closed primaries
▶ Party conventions
▶ General (presidential and mid-term) elections
▶ The Electoral College
Explain how campaign organizations and strategies affect
the election process.
The benefits and drawbacks of modern campaigns are represented by:
▶ Dependence on professional consultants
▶ Rising campaign costs and intensive fundraising efforts
▶ Duration of election cycles
▶ Impact of and reliance on
social media for campaign communication and fundraising
Explain how the organization, finance, and strategies of national political campaigns affect the election process.
a: Federal legislation and case law pertaining to campaign finance demonstrate the ongoing debate
over the role of money in political
and free speech, as set forth in:
▶ Buckley v. Valeo (1976), which ruled that campaign spending is a form of protected speech under the First Amendment, but upheld restrictions on political campaign contributions by individuals
▶ Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, which was an effort to ban soft money and reduce attack ads with "Stand byYour Ad" provision: "I'm [candidate's name] and I approve this message"
▶ Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010), which ruled that political spending by corporations, associations, and labor unions
is a form of protected speech under the First Amendment
b: Debates have increased over free speech and competitive and fair elections related to money and campaign funding (including contributions from individuals, PACs and political parties).
Evaluate the extent to which the Electoral College facilitates or impedes democracy.
The winner-take-all allocation of votes per state (except Maine and Nebraska) under the setup of the Electoral College compared with the national popular vote for president raises questions about whether the Electoral College facilitates or impedes democracy.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Gov Unit 3
Political Culture Quest
AP Gov Unit 5
AP Gov UNIT 3: Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP Government and Politics: FRQ 3
AP Government Unit 5
Honors Govt. Chapter 6-11
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Bio Unit 2: Genetics
Bio Unit 2: Genetics
Bio Unit 2: Genetics