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Math mid-term exam review (8th grade)
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (64)
variable
Symbols used to represent unspecified numbers or values.
range
The set of second numbers of the ordered pairs in a relation.
domain
The set of first numbers of the ordered pairs in a relation
power
an expression of the form xn, where x is a base that is repeatedly multiplied and n is the exponent that determines how many times the base is multiplied.
solving an open sentence
Finding a replacement value for the variable that results in a true sentence or an ordered pair that results in a true statement when substituted into the equation.
equation
A mathematical sentence that contains an equal sign (=)
coefficients
The numerical factor of a term
like terms
Terms that contain the same variables, with corresponding variables having the same exponent.
function
A relation in which each element of the domain is paired with exactly one element in the range.
inequality
An open sentence that contains the symbol <, <, >, or >.
absolute value
the distance from zero on a number line, represented by n
integers
the set {..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ...}
rational numbers
the set of numbers expressed in the form of a fraction a/b, where a and b are integers and b does not equal 0
positive numbers
any value that is greater than zero
negative numbers
any value less than zero
opposites
every positive rational number and its negative pair
additive inverse
the opposite of a number
line plot
a number line labeled with a scale to include all the data with an X placed above a data point each time it occurs
measures of central tendency
numbers or pieces of data that can represent the whole set of data
probability
the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes
odds
the ratio that compares the number of successes to the number of failures
irrational numbers
numbers that cannot be expressed as terminating or repeating decimals
real numbers
the set of rational and irrational numbers together
perfect square
a number whose square root is a rational number
square root
one of two equal factors of a number
formula
an equation that states a rule for the relationship between certain quantities
equivalent equations
equations that have the same solution
properties of equality
properties stating that performing the same operation on both sides of an equation produces an equivalent equation
identity
an equation that is true for every value of the variable
ratio
a comparison of two numbers by division
proportion
an equation stating that two ratios are equal
percent of change
when an increase or decrease is expressed as a percent
percent of increase
the ratio of the amount of increase to the original amount, expressed as a percent
percent of decrease
the ratio of the amount of decrease to the original amount, expressed as a percent
rate
the ratio of two measurements having different units of measure
standard form
a linear equation Ax + By = C where A 0, A and B are not both zero, A, B, and C are integers whose greatest common factor is 1
function notation
a way to name a function that is defined by an equation
y-intercept
the coordinate at which a graph intersects the y-axis
x-intercept
the coordinate of which a graph intersects the x-axis
inverse
obtained by switching the coordinates in each ordered pair
quadrants
the 4 regions into which the x-axis and the y-axis separate the coordinate plane
dilation
a transformation in which a figure is enlarged or reduced
transformation
movements of geometric figures
translation
a transformation in which a figure is slid in any direction
reflection
a type of transformation in which a figure is flipped over a line
rotation
any type of transformation in which a figure is turned about a point
slope
the ratio of the rise to the run
rate of change
how a quantity is changing over time
direct variation
an equation of the form y = kx, where k does not equal 0
constant of variation
the number k in equations of the form y = kx
slope-intercept form
an equation of the form y = mx + b
point-slope form
an equation of the form y - y1 = m(x - x1)
parallel lines
lines in the same plane that never intersect and have the same slope
perpendicular lines
lines that meet to form right angles
scatter plot
two sets of data plotted as ordered pairs in a coordinate plane
positive correlation
in a scatter plot, as x increases y increases
negative correlation
in a scatter plot, as x increases y decreases
union
the graph of a compound inequality containing or; the solution of either inequality, not necessarily both
intersection
the graph of a compound inequality containing and; the solution is the set of elements common to both inequalities
half-plane
the region of the graph of an inequality on one side of a boundary
Addition Property of Inequality
if m > n, then m + 6 > n + 6
Subtraction Property of Inequality
if x < y, then x - 10 < y - 10
Multiplication Property of Inequality
if p > q, then -8p < -8q
Division Property of Inequality
if a > b, then a/4 > b/4
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