How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

53 terms

Psych of Personality - Ch 8 Cattell and Eysenck

Mostly taken from: Hergenhahn, B. R. & Olson, M. H. (2007). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (7th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. and DeSouza, E. (2010). Manual for PSY 233 (PIP Packet # 7). Normal, IL: PIP Printing.
STUDY
PLAY
positive correlation
Condition that exists when values on tow variables tend to increase or decrease together.
T-data
Information obtained about a person from performance on an objective test. The T stands for test.
inductive reasoning
A method (exemplified in Cattell's research) that begins with collection of data, which then leads to hypotheses (also called inductive research).
psychoticism
The superfactor or type in Eysenck's theory that includes traits of aggression, egocentricity, impulsiveness, and creativity, to name a few.
correlation
Condition that exists when values on two variables vary together in some systematic way.
neuroticism
The superfactor or type in Eysenck's theory that includes traits of anxiety, depression, guilt, low self-esteem and shyness, to name a few.
negative correlation
Condition that exists when, as values on one variable tend to increase, values on a second variable tend to decrease, and vice versa.
environmental-mold trait
Trait that is determined by experience rather than by heredity.
erg
Constitutional dynamic source trait that provides the energy for all behavior. Much the same as what other theorists call a primary drive. Hunger and thirst are examples of ergs.
hypothetic-deductive reasoning
A method (exemplified in Eysenck's research) that begins with a hypothesis that guides data collection. (also called hypothetico-deductive research)
correlation coefficient
Mathematical expression indicating the extent to which two variables are correlated.
classical conditioning
Type of learning in which a stimulus that did not originally elicit a response is made to do so. Cattell believed many emotional response to persons, objects, or events are learned through classical conditioning.
factor analysis
Complex statistical technique based on the concept of correlation, which Cattell and Eysenck used to discover and investigate personality traits.
Sentiment
Learned predisposition to respond to a class of objects or events in a certain way. A sentiment is one type of metaerg.
determinism
Belief that behavior is a function of a finite number of variables, and if those variables were completely known, behavior could be predicted with complete accuracy.
ability trait
Trait that determines how effectively a person works toward a desired goal. Intelligence is such a trait
dynamic trait
Motivational trait that sets a person in motion toward a goal. Cattell postulated the existence of two types of dynamic traits: ergs and metaergs.
constitutional trait
Genetically determined trait.
Self-sentiment
Concern for oneself that is a prerequisite to the pursuit of any goal in life.
Q-data
Information provided when people fill out a questionnaire on which they rate themselves on various characteristics. The Q stands for questionnaire.
extroversion
The superfactor or type in Eysenck's theory that includes the traits of sociability, activity, assertiveness, and sensation-seeking, to name a few.
structured learning
Type of learning that results in rearranging one's personality traits. According to Cattell, this is the most important type of learning.
Temperament
Composite factors that describe the emotional, motivational and cognitive aspects of behavior. Temperament does not include intelligence or ability.
temperament trait
Constitutional source trait that determines a person's emotionality and style of behaving.
lexical hypothesis
The idea that all necessary information about personality is revealed in everyday language.
beyondism
Cattell's proposal that scientific facts be utilized to create moral systems rather than religious illusions or philosophical speculation.
source traits
Traits that constitute a person's personally structure and are thus the ultimate causes of behavior. Source traits are causally related to surface traits.
Syntality
Description of the traits that characterize a group or a nation.
instrumental conditioning
Leaning to make a response that will either make a reward available or remove an aversive stimulus.
dysthmic
In Eysenck's theory, a diagnosis given to severely disordered, introverted neurotics whose symptoms include anxiety, sensitivity, fatigue and exhaustion.
visceral brain
Eysenck's term for the limbic system, a sub cortical brain system that influences the autonomic nervous system.
subsidiation
Sentiments depending on ergs, and attitudes depend on sentiments.
metaerg
Environmental-mold, dynamic source trait. Much the same as what other theorists called secondary or learned drives.
cluster analysis
Systematic search of a correlation matrix in order to discover factors.
hysteric
In Eysenck's theory, a diagnosis given to severely disordered, neurotic extroverts whose symptoms may include hysterical conversion(s) such as non-neurological paralysis or blindness.
L-data
Information about a person's everyday life. The L stages for life record.
attitude
A learned tendency to respond in a particular way in a particular situation to a particular object or event. Attitudes derive from sentiments., which in turn derive from ergs. An attitude is one type of metaerg.
crystallized intelligence
Type of intelligence that comes from formal education or from general experience. It is the type of intelligence that most intelligence tests attempt to measure.
superfactor
In Eysenck's theory, a higher order factor that encompasses or explains a number of correlated traits or first-order factors.
R-technique
Type of factor analysis that studies many things about many people.
personality sphere
Universe of source traits in terms of which al humans can be compared. The number of source traits in this universe is as yet undetermined.
dynamic lattice
Diagram showing the relationships among ergs, sentiments and attitudes.
correlation matrix
Display of the many correlation coefficients that result when many sources of information are intercorrelated.
surface traits
Outward manifestations of source traits. These are the characteristics of a person that can be directly observed and measured.
P-technique
Type of factor analysis that studies how a single individual's traits change over time.
heritability
The proportion of variability in the expression of a trait that is attributed to genetics as opposed to environmental influences.
ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)
A network of neurons in the reticular formation of the brain stem that is responsible for cortical arousal and de-arousal.
factor
Ability or characteristic that is thought to be responsible for consistent behavior. In Cattell's system, a factor is also called a trait.
trait
Refers either to a group of interrelated overt behaviors (surface trait) or to the deeper determinant of such interrelated behavior (source traits). The main usefulness of surface traits is that they provide information about source traits.
long-circuiting
Indirect satisfaction of an erg. An example is a man developing athletic ability in order to be desirable to a woman who will satisfy his sexual desires.
arousal theory
A general class of theories that assumes behavior is partly a function of the general state of arousal (excitation) or de-arousal (inhibition) of the cortex and/or other brain structures.
ergic tension
Tension that varies as the intensity of an erg varies.
fluid intelligence
General problem-solving ability that is largely innate.