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Casket Empty Old Testament Survey- Kaminski (FINAL)
Terms in this set (100)
An unconditional covenant promising that God will not destroy humanity even though sin continues after the flood. The rainbow is a sign of His covenant.
1. Many descendants--too many to count
2. relationship with God
3. land (the "promised land")
4. His presence ("I will be with you")
5. the nations will be blessed in his "seed"
6. he will be the father of many nations
7. kings will come from his line (Judah)
An unconditional covenant where Abraham believes that God will perform what He has promised. God confirms His promise by the establishment of His covenant with Abraham.
Covenant of Circumcision
A conditional covenant; a covenantal sign in which foreigners are included.
Exodus from Egypt (Date)
The Ten Commandments
Exodus 20; Deuteronomy 5
1. One God
2. No Idol Worship
4. Resting on the Sabbath
5. Honor Your Father and Mother
6. Do not commit Murder
7. Do not commit Adultery
8. Do not commit Stealing
9. Do not keep False Witness
10. Do not covet
A conditional covenant between God and the Israelites on Mt. Sinai in which God gives His Ten Commandments. The Israelites agree to obey God's laws. God will bless Israel if they obey His laws, but curse them if they disobey them (Lev. 26; Deut. 27-28).
United Monarchy (Date)
2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17
An unconditional covenant (conditional in terms of the heir).
1. Everlasting throne
2. Everlasting kingdom
3. "Son of God" relationship
4. Son will build temple
5. Covenant cannot be broken
An unconditional covenant
Internalization in the heart and complete forgiveness of sins, which Old Testament sacrifices could never provide. God will restore His people; He will fulfill the Davidic Covenant and raise up a righteous son to sit on the everlasting throne.
Division of the kingdom (Date)
Northern Kingdom (Dates)
End of the Northern Kingdom - Assyrian Invasion (Date)
Southern Kingdom (Dates)
1st Deportation by Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar (Date)
Nebuchadnezzar defeats Egypt (Date)
Daniel goes to Babylon (Date)
2nd Deportation by Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar (Date)
Ezekiel goes to Babylon (Date)
Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem and temple (date)
End of southern kingdom and exile to Babylon (date)
Cyrus defeats Babylon (date)
Decree of Cyrus allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem (date)
1st return of Jews to Jerusalem [under Zerubbabel and Joshua] (date)
Haggai and Zechariah (date)
Temple completed (date)
2nd return from exile under Ezra (date)
Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem to rebuild walls (date)
Jeroboam I (Northern King)
Builds altars at Dan and Bethel, installs non-Levites as priests, makes two idols instituted as Israel's gods which remain for two-hundred years.
Ahab (Northern King)
Son of Omri, Jezebel is his wife, institutes Baal worship and idolatry, widely considered the worst northern king. Elijah at Mount Carmel: the LORD is God.
Jehu (Northern King)
Kills Ahab's sons, destroys Baal worshippers and false prophets but the golden calves remain. Pays tribute to Shalmanser III, king of Assyria.
Pekah (Northern King)
Attacks Ahaz (a southern king), and kills Pekahiah (the previous northern king).
Hoshea (Northern King)
Hoshea rebels and kills Pekah. However, he is loyal to the Assyrians and pays tribute. He then seeks help from Egypt and withholds payment from the Assyrians.
Saul (Southern King)
From the line of Benjamin, He is "a king like the nations. A head taller than the rest." He chooses to disobey God in many ways:
He provides sacrifices without Samuel
He does not destroy the Amalekites
He consults spirit mediums
He is killed by the Philistines and rejected as king.
David (Southern King)
God's chosen king from the line of Judah. He is anointed by Samuel in Bethlehem. He establishes Jerusalem as a holy city and the capital. He is an example of God's grace in spite of sin.
Solomon (Southern King)
He builds the temple in Jerusalem and God's glory fills it. He is a wise king but has many wives who introduce him to their foreign idols. The kingdom is torn from his son Rehoboam.
Rehoboam (Southern King)
Bad king. He listens to his young friends and establishes abominations like the nations (pagan religious practices, cult prostitutes, etc.)
Jehoshaphat (Southern King)
Good king. Forms an alliance with Ahab against the Philistines. He has significant religious reform, appointing judges and reinstituting Levites as priests. He trusts God, however, there is still pagan religion.
Ahaz (Southern King)
He is like the northern kings sacrificing to idols, performing abominations, and having no trust in God. He asks Assyria for help and Pekah (the southern king) attacks Jerusalem.
Hezekiah (Southern King)
Hezekiah is a good king and the northern kingdom experiences covenant renewal. He removes the high places, cleanses the temple, restores religious practices like Passover and worship, and he trusts God when the Assyrians attack.
Manasseh (Southern King)
Bad king. Creates altars for Baal, and practices like child sacrifice, witchcraft, consulting spirits and mediums, and puts idols in the temple. He repents but judgment is still coming against Judah.
Josiah (Southern King)
Good king. He finds the law and there is a period of covenant renewal, removes all the abominations, alters, and idols and celebrates Passover.
Jehoiakim (Southern King)
Bad king. Appointed by Pharaoh Necro and does evil during the time of Jeremiah. It is in his reign that Nebuchadnezzar defeats Egypt and the first deportation to Babylon begins in 605BC.
Zedikiah (Southern King)
Nebuchadnezzar puts him on the throne but he does evil and breaks covenant with Nebuchadnezzar by seeking help from Egypt. In payment, Nebuchadnezzar kills his seven sons and blinds him before sending him to Babylon.
Reasons for the Exile
Theological Reasons for the Exile
-Mosaic Covenant of blessings and curses
-The divine presence leaving the temple (the protection is no longer there)
Political Reasons for the Exile
-Rise of the Babylonian Empire
-The Wickedness of the last four kings
-Zedekiah breaks covenant with the Babylonians and forms an alliance with Egypt.
-Zedekiah not only broke covenant with God but with Nebuchadnezzar as well (Ezekiel 17).
Tiglath Pilesar III, Shalmanser V, Sargon II
Nebuchadnezzar, Balshazzar, Nabonius
Cyrus, Darius I, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes
The Black Obelisk
Depicts Jehu bowing before Shalmanser
The Taylor Prism
Records Sennacherib's attack on Jerusalem "like a bird in a cage."
The Gilgamesh Epic
Mesopotamian flood narrative
The Tel-Dan Inscription
Tenth century reference to the house of David
The Cyrus Cylinder
Describes Cyrus' entry into Babylon
The Nabonius Chronicler
Last period of the Babylonian empire.
Genesis (book summary)
The book of Genesis begins with creation and details the fall and the repercussions of the fall through the earliest generations. Genesis is a book of genealogies beginning with Adam and detailing Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The book ends with the death of Joseph.
Exodus (book summary)
The book of Exodus begins with Israelites enslaved in Egypt and ends with the glory cloud in the tabernacle descending from Mount Sinai. This is miraculous because God is dwelling with a sinful people. The book of Exodus is redemption from slavery, the plagues and curses from God to Egypt, to worship in the tabernacle and God's glory filling it.
Leviticus (book summary)
The book of Leviticus details the Israelites time in Sinai and the duties of the tribe of Levi and the levitical priests. The book outlines several different types of sacrifices and penalties for both intentional and unintentional sin and impurity. The day of atonement is described and the Israelites are instructed to obey God's laws and practice holiness. The book ends with the description of festivals and feasts and conditions for God's blessing.
Numbers (book summary)
The book of Numbers details the people preparing to enter the Promised Land under Moses and details their journey from Sinai to the edge of land. It tells of the numbering of the tribes and the grumblings and restlessness along the way. The book mentions the spies who bring a poor report because of their lack of faith (with the exception of Joshua and Caleb who have faith in God). It details God's judgment and the forty years of wandering in the desert. The book ends with a second numbering, the census of the new generation in Moab.
Deuteronomy (book summary)
The book of Deuteronomy consists of Moses expounding on God's laws to the new generation at Moab and includes a review of their history and the Ten Commandments. The book explains laws and stipulations for the community, for war, and for worship in the sanctuary. It includes blessings and curses and the endurance of God's covenant even when Israel falls away God will restore. The book ends with the final words and the death of Moses.
Joshua (book summary)
The book of Joshua details the establishment of Joshua as the new leader and the task of getting the people to the Promised Land after the death of Moses. It begins with the preparation to enter the land and the account of Rahab's faith. The book explains the conquest of the land BY FAITH. The land is then divided amongst the 12 tribes and the book ends with a review of history and the final words of Joshua.
Judges (book summary)
The book of Judges details the incomplete conquest of the land and the Israelites gravitation toward sin (marrying foreign women, worshipping idols, etc.). God raises up leaders (judges) to deliver Israel. This period is characterized by: idolatry, military conflict, and defeat. Moral failure escalates in the final chapters. Ends with "In those days there was no king of Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes" (21:25).
Six Major Judges
Six Minor Judges
Tola and Jair (10:1-5)
Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15)
Ruth (book summary)
-Begins with Elimelech and his wife Naomi living in Bethlehem (1)
-they move to Moab due to a famine
-their sons marry Moabite women, Orpah and Ruth
-Elimelech and his sons due
-Boaz (a kinsman-redeemer) marries Ruth in Bethlehem of Judah.
-Ends with Genealogy: Judah, Perez, Obed, Jesse, David the King.
1 Samuel (book summary)
Corruption of the Priesthood: judgment against Eli's household
Israelites are defeated by the Philistines (Ark of the Covenant is taken)
Call of Samuel the prophet
Reign of Saul
Call of David
Saul dies in battle
2 Samuel (book summary)
David anointed king of Judah and over all of Israel
David and Bathsheba
1 Kings (book summary)
Kings: focuses on the Northern Kingdom, but includes the Southern.
Begins with death of David
Continues storyline of Samuel
Building of the temple
Division of kingdoms--up to rule of North (King Ahaziah) and South (King Jehoshaphat),
2 Kings (book summary)
History of the two kingdoms until Northern Kingdom falls to Assyrians and Southern Kingdom falls to Babylon.
Ends with Southern Kingdom, deportation
1 and 2 Chronicles (book summary)
Both Chronicles and Kings record history of monarchy
Focuses on Judah, the Temple, and Southern Kingdom.
Begins with Genealogy--Creation(Adam) to Exile (Cyrus)
Written later after Exile
Ezra (book summary)
Ezra is a scribe, he has devoted himself to the study of God's law, 458 B.C. second return from Exile includes Ezra; upon his return Ezra discovers that God's people have been marrying foreigners; leads in reading of the Law, confession, covenant renewal and prayer--the people set aside their foreign wives.
Nehemiah (book summary)
445 B.C. Nehemiah, cupbearer of ARTAXERXES I, returns to Jerusalem; rebuilds the walls of Jerusalem; genealogical list of returnees; reading of the law, prayer, covenant renewal; dedication of the wall; Returns to Susa in 433 B.C., but religious reforms in Jerusalem do not last!
Esther (book summary)
XERXES I, king of Persia; Esther, an Israelite woman, becomes queen; Haman plots against God's people, but God providentially works to save them through Esther; Haman is hanged, Mordecai is given a position of authority; time of great rejoicing for God's people; God preserves His people.
Job (book summary)
"blameless, upright, fearing God" no King named to locate Job historically; summary of his life, underscoring his character and suffering not from God, but allowed.
Psalms (book summary)
Authorship: David, Asaph, The sons of Korah, Solomon
Types of Psalms: Hymns of Praise, Penitential Psalms, Wisdom, Royal/Messianic, Imprecatory Psalms, Psalms of Lament, History of Israel
Proverbs (book summary)
Authorship: Solomon, sayings of wise men, Hezekiah's collection, sayings of Agur, sayings of Lemuel
Postscript: excellent wife
Key Themes: (didactic or instructional wisdom)
wisdom is to be prized and sought after!
wealth and poverty; teaching on how one attains wealth
ethical behavior in business, work and society
the values of work and the dangers of laziness
integrity in marriage and family
father/son instruction, discipline, and relationship
"The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom."
Ecclesiastes (book summary)
Authorship: 'preacher, son of David, king of Jerusalem'
Key Theme: Vanity!
Life's pursuits and pleasures are meaningless, unsatisfying, and have no lasting value.
Life without God is meaningless
Song of Solomon (book summary)
Ancient Near Eastern love poetry; metaphors
The celebration of love between a man and a woman
Use of garden imagery echoes Eden; delight
Some say allegory: love between Yahweh and Israel
Isaiah (book summary)
Begins ministry in the year of Uzziah's death, (8th C.)
God's people have rebelled against the Holy One of Israel
God's people are "blind and deaf" like their idols
There are no gods but the LORD!
Judgment is coming
HOPE through the Suffering Servant
God's blessing will extend to the nations: the Servant will be a light to the nations
God's king will reign
Zion's glorious future
Jeremiah (book summary)
Ministry: 627 B.C. to Exile, during the reign of the last 5 Kings
Prophet to the nations; exposes the sins of Judah
Preaches at temple gate
Mosaic Covenant has been broken, but God will make a New Covenant with his people. He will put his law in their hearts, internalization/unconditional, forgiveness of sins.
God will restore his people and fulfill his promises to David: He will raise up a righteous son to sit on the throne
Lamentations (book summary)
Jeremiah laments over the destruction of Jerusalem
Amidst utter despair, Jeremiah has hope in God's unfailing mercy: "Great is your faithfulness."
Ezekiel (book summary)
597 B.C. 2nd Deportation with Jehoiachin to Babylon
Key Themes: Call of the prophet to rebellious house of Israel
Israel's idolatrous practices made known
The prophet sees God's presence leave the temple
Jerusalem has played the harlot
Ezekiel is to make known Israel's abominations
God has delayed judgment for the sake of His name
Four instruments of judgment: sword, famine, plague, and wild beasts
Ezekiel's vision of the dry bones
Jerusalem is destroyed and Judah is exiled to Babylon
Daniel (book summary)
605 B.C. 1st Deportation brought to Babylon until 539
Daniel serves in Nebuchadnezzar's court
Interprets dreams and has visions
Put into a furnace
Four kingdoms ("beasts") will rise and fall, but God will establish His everlasting kingdom
The Four Beasts: Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans
Hosea (book summary)
During reign of Jeroboam II
Characters: Hosea's marriage to Gomer & three children--Jezreel, "No-compassion," "Not-people"
Themes: Israel is playing the harlot after other gods
Hosea's marriage to Gomer symbolizes Israel's unfaithfulness: three children of harlotry
Hosea marries an unfaithful woman
God has a lawsuit against Israel
Israel has failed to keep God's law
God's unfailing love for Israel
God will restore Israel
Joel (book summary)
Locusts will invade Jerusalem! God will send an enemy from the north.
Amos (book summary)
During reign of Jeroboam II
Themes: God holds the surrounding nations accountable: Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab.
Israel has not upheld God's righteous standards of the law: lack of justice, abuse of the poor and the needy, bribes, distortion of justice, lavish wealth at expense of poor
The law stressed the importance of righteous judgment
Idolatry: golden calves at Dan and Bethel; syncretism!
God's judgment is coming!
Obadiah (book summary)
God will judge Edom
Announces restoration after the Exile, God promises to bring:
Israel back to the land and multiply them
Make a New Covenant--unbreakable
Put His law in their heart
Give Israel a new heart and spirit
Cleanse and forgive Israel's sin
Raise up a righteous Davidic King
Pour out His Spirit on all flesh
Jerusalem and the temple will be rebuilt
Jonah (book summary)
Northern Kingdom (Israel and Nineveh)
During the reign of Jeroboam II
God commands Jonah to go to the Assyrian city of Nineveh, but he disobeys
God appoints a fish: Jonah prays to God for help
Jonah warns the people of Nineveh, and they repent
God is gracious and compassionate
Jonah's anger and God's response: God appoints a plant, a worm and a scorching wind
Jonah has more compassion for the tree that has perished, than human beings who are perishing!
Micah (book summary)
8th Century (740-686 BC)
During the reign of Jotham (8th C.)
Words of judgment
Israel has failed to uphold God's righteous standards of the law
Israel's transgressions and rebellious acts include: injustice, bribery, false scales, deception, and bloodshed.
God requires that his people do justice, love kindness, and walk humbly with their God
Words of hope: a ruler will come forth from Judah; "Who is a God like you?
Nahum (book summary)
Ninevah will fall!
612 B.C. Assyria is defeated by the Babylonians
Habbakkuk (book summary)
Babylon to judge Judah
The righteous are to live by faith.
Zephaniah (book summary)
"The day of the Lord is near."; God will bring judgment against the southern kingdom.
Haggai (book summary)
The prophet rebukes God's people for building their own houses, while the temple is in disrepair.
God has withheld the rain while His house is in ruins
"Build God's house!"
God stirs up Zerubbabel and Joshua to lead in the rebuilding of the temple.
Haggai announces that God's glory will once again dwell in the temple--it will be more glorious than the first one!
Zechariah (book summary)
Visions of the restoration of Jerusalem--the city and temple will be rebuilt! God's temple will be more glorious than the first
Two 'anointed' figures will rebuild the temple
Jerusalem will be the blessing to the nations
God's King is coming with salvation--mounted on a donkey--but times of warfare are ahead. The shepherd is killed and Israel mourns.
God defeats His enemies and reigns victoriously
He will dwell with His people
Malachi (book summary)
last OT Prophet:
God's people are questioning His love and justice
The problem is not God but the people's unfaithfulness, including Israel's priests
God's coming has been delayed, He will send His messenger to prepare the way for His coming (Elijah figure)
Old Testament Books in Canonical Order
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
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