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Developmental Psych Exam 2

Grossmont dev. psych
STUDY
PLAY
Girls who typically bully:
mock and ridicule their victim
By the age of 10, which of the following is true regarding friendships?
Both boys and girls want to have best friends.
In middle childhood, the crucial question regarding family structure is:
Whatever the structure, does it fulfill the five essential functions for school-age children?
The statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level is:
"I am careful not to get caught"
Compared with nuclear families, extended families typically:
involve more people
According to Erikson, if 9 year old Anna is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a view of herself as:
industrious
Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:
withdrawn-rejected
Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, texts, or web postings is called:
cyberbullying
Carla is good because she is afraid she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development?
preconventional
When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of:
socia cognition
School-age children would most admire:
Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane.
Stella's parents observed that she has begun to participate in moral arguments on issues of right and wrong. Her matured moral thinking is due to:
concrete operational thinking and peer experience
In the United States, in which of the following ethnic groups would you be least likely to find single fathers?
Asian Americans
The key word in the definition of bullying is:
repeated
Which of the following factors have the greatest influence on whether or not children thrive in a blended family?
the SES and emotional security of the parents
Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include:
the uterus and testes begin to grow
Does the ability of schoolchildren to use deductive reasoning tend to develop at the same time as their ability to use inductive reasoning?
No, deductive reasoning tends to develop later than inductive reasoning.
During the growth spurt, the last part(s) of the body to grow is (are) the:
torso
Family conflict and stress:
may cause the early onset of puberty
For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as ______ years or as late as ______ years.
8;14
For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is the
spermarche
For boys, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:
growth of the testes; initial pubic-hair growth; growth of the penis; spermarche.
For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:
the beginning of breast development, the growth spurt, and menarche.
For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is:
testosterone
In Inhelder and Piaget's balance experiment, a child who systematically tests the idea that the relationship between weight and distance is reciprocal is probably age:
14
Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than other peoples'. This is part of their:
personal fable
Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating:
her belief in an imaginary audience
Of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?
prefrontal cortex
One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to:
think in terms of possibilities
Sixteen-year-old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. Paul is demonstrating:
the invincibility fable
The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child's:
brain
The hormone that causes gonads to increase the production of estrogen and testosterone is:
GnRH
What-if propositions require:
hypothetical thought
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the relationship between body fat and the onset of puberty?
There is a positive correlation between obesity and early onset of puberty
Bickering between parents and teenagers:
usually concerns clothes and personal habits
Angel's parents always wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel never questioned this. At 21, Angel decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Angel is resisting:
identity forclosure
The ultimate psychosocial goal, according to Erikson, is identity:
achievement
Arrest statistics do not accurately reflect the prevalence of adolescent delinquency because:
many offenders are never caught
At age 17, Jeff aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he made more friends with serious musical interests and drifted away from friends with other interests. He is exhibiting peer:
selection
Pressure to conform to one's friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude is referred to as:
peer pressure
Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are
less self-confident than they were as children
Approximately 1 in _____ adolescent girls is affected by clinical depression.
5
According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and no commitment is:
diffusion
In which of the following relationships are you likely to find the most bickering?
mothers and daughters
Cliques and crowds provide adolescents with social:
control and social support
The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as:
moratorium
According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to:
form a coherent identity
According to Dunphy, which of the following describes the sequence of heterosexual relationships during childhood and adolescence?
groups of same-sex friends, public interactions within a crowd of mixed-sex groups, small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd, formation of couples with private intimacies
Adolescence is known as a time when young people distance themselves from the values and behaviors of older people. Which of the following statements is true regarding this behavior?
Adolescents who feel valued by their communities and their elders are less likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors.
A person between the ages of 18 and 25 is entering a new developmental stage called:
emerging adulthood
According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve which of the following crises?
intimacy versus isolation
According to Labouvie-Vief, which of the following characteristics the cognitive development of the emerging adult?
the emergence of complex, critical, and relativizing thinking
During emerging adulthood, intimacy is found primarily in:
relationships with friends, family, and sexual partners
In the United States, emerging adults are less likely to live at home than those in some other cultures. Which of the following is true?
they are still likely to receive financial support from their parents
In the United States, the death rate among emerging adult males is approximately ______ per year.
15,000
Jessica is 21 years old. How is her circle of friends likely to differ from that of her mother when she was Jessica's age?
Jessica's circle of friends is more likely to include males and females
Juan is one of the "21-at-21" drinkers. What does this mean?
10 percent of emerging adults who consume 21 drinks to celebrate 21st
The current level of food availability means that in almost every nation, women have reached their full height by age ______ and men by age ______.
16;18
Today's emerging adults have ______ sexual partners and ______ babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago.
more; fewer
What is the estimated incidence of anxiety disorders among emerging adults in the United States?
25 percent
What percentage of emerging adults in the United States have had at least one STI?
50 percent
Which of Sternberg's three components of love are influenced by the social context?
commitment
Which of the following characterizes integrated adults?
they are able to regulate emotions and logic
Which of the following groups is most likely to report having smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days?
emerging adults, ages 19-25
Which of the following groups reports the lowest rates of chronic illness?
18-24 years old
Which of the following is a distinct activity of emerging adulthood?
extreme sports
Which of the following is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?
they are more likely to divorce if they marry
Which of the following is true regarding the self-esteem of emerging adults?
In spite of the new challenges and stressors that they face, their self-esteem is higher than earlier and continues to rise throughout emerging adulthood.
Which of the following statistics is true of schizophrenia?
it is more common in males than females
Which of the following is characteristic of Post-formal thinking?
understanding that one's perspective is one of many potentially valid views
Juan is a 20 year old Hispanic American who believes that success in school is for females and whites. He may be experiencing
stereotype threat
The changes that occur in middle adulthood:
All answers are correct
The decline in fluid intelligence during middle adulthood
is temporarily counteracted by increases in crystallized intelligence
Diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging
may be strongly affected by lifestyle
For a typical middle-aged adult, intelligence increases:
in the specific areas that reflect his or her interest
Jim couldn't understand why he kept slowly gaining weight. He wasn't eating any more than usual and he maintained his regular exercise routine. What explains his weight gain?
His metabolism slowed down by a third between emerging and late adulthood
By the end of middle age, nearly everyone needs:
reading glasses.
By age 65, a person is most likely to lose:
nearly an inch in height
Brian is typical of his cohort. He is approaching age 30, has conquered his drug addiction, and now drinks very moderately. What is most likely to have prompted him to change?
maturity and marriage
Adulthood covers which four decades of life?
25-65
From a biological perspective, women should try to conceive before age ______ and men before age ______.
30; 40
During adulthood, what happens to practical intelligence?
it increases
Women experience menopause; men experience:
andropause
Gus has been picking up some extra shifts at work to make ends meet, including taking some all-night shifts. He has been making some costly errors on the job that he's never made before, even when he worked longer hours. What has caused the change?
his lack of sleep slows his thinking and problem-solving abilities
Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical and interpersonal intelligence are five of Gardner's multiple intelligences. The other three are
kinesthetic, interpersonal, and naturalistic
Which of the following affects the development of expertise?
all answers are correct
Practical intelligence would be most needed to
understand the needs of family members
As Tom helped himself to a fourth beer, he announced to everyone at the barbecue that alcohol is healthy in moderation. How does the text define "moderation"?
no more than two drinks of moderate size per day
Katherine, age 50, and her daughter Lisa, age 20, have recently taken jobs as waitresses. Compared to Lisa, Katherine will probably:
employ more time management strategies
A person who has many of the personality traits associated with extroversion would most likely be described as:
active and outgoing
After the children are grown, most married couples:
have adequate time for their relationship
As adults age, their friendships tend to
improve
Aunt Emily is the family's kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for:
gathering the family for holidays, sending birthday reminders, and disseminating family communications.
Because they are called on to help both older and younger generations of the family, middle-aged adults have been called the:
sandwich generation
Cheryl is entering the workforce due to a recent divorce. As a single parent with three children, she needs at least a livable wage, good benefits, and a retirement plan. She is focused on the:
extrinsic rewards of work
Evelyn, a mother of two, has been divorced for six years and would like to remarry. Most likely, she will marry a man who:
has children from a previous marriage
Identify the stage of adulthood from Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
generativity versus stagnation
In the United States today, the social clock:
allows for greater diversity than in the past
Sam is moody, anxious, and self-punishing. Sam is high in:
neuroticism
Some people refer to a period of unusual anxiety, reexamination, and transformation during middle adulthood as a(n):
midlife crisis
Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents:
improves with age
Which most accurately depicts middle age?
Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40.
Because much is changing in the employment landscape, how work affects adult development is
unclear
A break-up would be most stressful for which of the following individuals?
Carlene, who is in a long-term marriage
Consequences of a particular chronic disease are characteristic of what type of aging?
secondary
Elderly people who are hard of hearing:
are often excluded from social give and take
In Schaie's Seattle Longitudinal Study, the cognitive decline of late adulthood was most evident in which of the following?
processing speed
Maximum life span is said to be ______ years for humans.
122
Primary aging refers to age-related changes that:
inevitably take place as time goes by
The chief reason the elderly have difficulty in getting enough nutrients is the:
reduced efficiency of the digestive system
The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that:
they do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly
The most common cause of dementia is:
Alzheimer disease
The multidisciplinary, scientific study of old age is called:
gerontology
The overall slowdown in cognitive abilities in the days or months before death is referred to as:
terminal decline
The primary reason older people receive less input into their brains is that:
their senses decline, reducing sensory input
The term "ageism" refers to:
judging people on the basis of chronological age
Using elderspeak when engaging in conversation with an older adult:
is demeaning
When Justin's mother said to her elderly father, "Dad, Justin wants to share his baseball story with you!" he replied, "I don't care about history anymore." Why would her father respond in that way?
Reduced auditory input prevented him from hearing the entire communication
Which of the following is associated with wisdom?
practical life experience
Which senses become less sharp in late adulthood?
all answers correct
The closest but most vulnerable family relationship when the parent is in late adulthood is the relationship between:
mother and daughter
The most important buffer against loss that comes from retirement and widowhood is having:
at least one close friend
At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted to her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustrates:
continuity theory
The style of grandparenting that generally brings the most satisfaction to middle-aged individuals in the United States is the ______ role.
companionate
Recent research has indicated that most older adults:
want to retire as soon as they are eligible.
Mr. Inman is 71 years old and has just enrolled in a course at the local college. Which of the following is least likely to be his motivation?
career advancement
Erikson called the final crisis of development:
integrity versus despair
Compared to younger couples, older couples in long-term marriages:
are closer
Polly effusively describes her youth and earlier adulthood as "perfect," having had many wonderful experiences, a loving family, and good friends. She is demonstrating:
the positivity effect
Compared to single older adults, the married elderly tend to be:
happier and wealthier
Which of the following statements about older people and religion is true?
Older people are less likely to attend weekly religious services than are younger people.
Most elder abuse is committed by:
adult children
Claire and Dennis have lived in the same house for over 40 years. They reared their children there and were actively involved in the community. As they age, their children want them to move to a nearby small apartment. Like many other older adults, Claire and Dennis:
prefer to age in place
The term "ADL" refers to
activities of daily life
Where is an elderly person most likely to prefer to live?
his or her own home
An important function of the mourning process is to:
help prevent grief-stricken individuals from committing self-destructive acts.
James, age 50, is terminally ill. He is primarily focused on:
leaving something undone
Mrs. Cannon has been diagnosed as terminally ill, but she insists she will recover because her laboratory results were mixed up with someone else's. Kübler-Ross would say that Mrs. Cannon is in the emotional stage of:
denial
The function of the hospice is to:
allow people to die in peace
The period in the life span where death is less feared is:
adolescence
What is the public and ritualistic expression of bereavement?
mourning
What is the sense of loss following a death?
bereavement
Which of the following is a characteristic of a good death?
all answers correct
Which of the following is true regarding hospice care?
A diagnosis of terminally ill must be made in order to qualify for services.
Which of the following makes a good death more likely now than it was in the past?
hospice care