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36 terms

USMLE Respiratory Rx

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Diphenhydramine
1st generation H1 blocker
Dimenhydrinate
1st generation H1 blocker
Chlorpheniramine
1st generation H1 blocker
Loratadine
2nd generation H1 blocker
Fexfenadine
2nd generation H1 blocker
Desloratadine
2nd generation H1 blocker
Cetirizine
2nd generation H1 blocker
Isoproterenol
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2)
Isoproterenol
Adverse effect is tachycardia (beta1)
Albuterol
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2). Use during acute exacerbation
Salmeterol
Long acting agent for asthma prophylaxis
Salmeterol
Tremor and arrhythmia
Theophylline (methylxanthines)
Inhibits phosphodiesterase, decreases cAMP hydrolysis -> bronchodilation
Theophylline (methylxanthines)
Narrow therapeutic index
Theophylline (methylxanthines)
Cardiotoxicity
Theophylline (methylxanthines)
Neurotoxicity
Theophylline (methylxanthines)
P-450 metabolism
Theophylline (methylxanthines)
Blocks actions of adenosine
Ipratropium
Muscarinic antagonist
Ipratropium
Competitive block of muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchoconstriction
Ipratropium
Used for asthma and COPD
Cromolyn
Prevents release of mediators from mast cells
Cromolyn
Effective only for the prophylaxis of asthma. Not effective during an acute attack. Toxicity rare.
Beclomethasone, prednisone (corticosteroids)
Inhibit cytokine synthesis
Beclomethasone, prednisone (corticosteroids)
Inactivates NF-kB (transcription factor for TNFa and other inflammatory agents)
Beclomethasone, prednisone (corticosteroids)
1st line therapy for chronic asthma
Zileuton
5-lipoxygenase inhibitor
Zileuton
Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes
Zafirlukast
Block leukotriene receptors
Zafirlukast
Especially good for aspirin-induced asthma
Montelukast
Block leukotriene receptors
Montelukast
Especially good for aspirin-induced asthma
Guaifenesin
Removes excess sputum but large doses necessary; does not suppress cough reflex
N-acetylcysteine
Mucolytic. Loosens plugs in CF. Antidote for acetominophen overdose.
Bosentan
Used to Tx PHTN.
Bosentan
Competitively antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors, decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance.