Social Work Licensing Exam Review

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Terms in this set (...)

Task-centered treatment
Short-term approach to treatment based on learning and cognitive theories
Solution-focused therapy
Short-term, strengths-based treatment model that emphasizes empowerment to allow client to take action him or herself
Strength-based perspective
A social work practice approach that recognizes the person and her/his cultural experiences and beliefs as an asset on which to develop a plan for change
Motivational Interviewing
A non-confrontational interpersonal communication technique used to motivate patients to change behavior
Ecological Perspective
Relationship between the individual and his or her environment determines the individual's life situation. Examines interactions between the client system and larger social and physical environment
Systems Theory
Conceptualizes client system within the context of the environment in which they exist and explains the interactions of the components within the system
Ecosystems Perspective
Emphasizes the dynamic and interdependent relationship that individuals, family or the community has with the surrounding environment
Transaction
Exchanges of resources, or the processes through which systems exchange information and energy
Input
The resources available within systems and their environments, responds to feedback and moves it to input.
Processing
System's responses to inputs, produces responses or outputs
Process of Processing
-Select
-Organize
-Analyze
-Synthesize
-Utilize
Output
Receives responses from processing, includes both products and ways in which systems act on their environments
Feedback
Helps systems evaluate their situations and make modifications or take corrective actions, completes the loop of information and energy exchange
Process of Feedback
-Response
-Evaluation
-Adjustment
Social Functioning
All the factors influencing the performance of roles that enable individuals to achieve a reasonable degree of fulfillment and to function as proudctive and contributing members of society
Risk Factors of Social Functioning
-vulnerability to specific problems
-conditions exist that could have a negative impact
-conditions: unemployment, substance abuse, illness - children at risk for abuse and neglect; disabled at risk for unemployment; elderly for instiutionalization; inner-city for declining educational and economic opportunities
Five Orientations of Casework
Psychosocial, functional, problem-solving, psychobehavioral, crisis intervention
Welfare State
A nation that assumes responsibility for meeting basic needs for education, healthcare, economic and social security needs of its people
Micro Level
Focuses on individual level, one-on-one change
Mezzo Level
Focuses on groups and families
Macro Level
Focuses on the community level and working with policies
Subsystem
Component of larger system
Social Systems Perspective
The notion of partnership in the transactions between practitioners and client systems.
Social System
An organized whole made up of components that interact in a way distinct from their interaction with other entities and which endures over a period of time.
Person-in-Environment Perspective
Recognition that environmental forces help to create, contribute to, and address problems in living individuals and families. (family ,social service, political, employment, religious, goods and services, and educational systems.
Public Social Services
Local, state, and federal laws; part of government bureaucratic hierarchy funded by taxes, civil service hiring; Example: Social security and Child Protection Services (CPS)
Private Social Services
Agency bylaws, flexible programming, private source of income, agency standards for hiring; Hierarchical or shared management, More options/freedom, but risky; Examples: Family service centers, advocacy agencies, health care facilities
Agencies
Deliver social services
Associations
Provide membership services
Primary Setting
Primary focus is to deliver social services.
Host Setting
Social services are secondary and are offered as an adjunct to organizational purposes and complement, support, or enhance the mission of the host institution.
Sectarian Setting
Religious affliation
Non-Sectarian Setting
Non-religious affliation
Grants
Money awarded to organizations
Venture Grants
One-time only
Community Funds
Taxes, donors, community fundraising
Endowments
Income-producing monetary/property investments
Block Grant
Special revenue sharing contributed federal funds to local government for broad categorical areas
Service
To serve those in need, putting their well-being before your own self-interest. Social workers are encouraged to also participate in pro bono work.
Social Justice
Social workers get involved where social injustice is found, focused especially on poverty, unemployment, discrimination. This can be done through promoting sensitivity, ensuring access to needed information, services, and resources; helping to create equality of opportunity; and meaningful participation in decision making for all people.
Dignity and Worth of the Person
Social workers treat each person with respect and care, taking into consideration the differences in culture, ethnicity, background, etc. Social workers seek to enhance a client's opportunity to help themselves.
Importance of Human Relationships
Social workers engage people as partners in a helping process, working beside people and not for them. Social workers also seek to strengthen all human relationships ,to promote the well-being of individuals, and all the levels of society of which they are a part.
Integrity
Social workers must be trustworthy by following their code of ethics.
Competence
Social workers develop and enhance their professional knowledge, skills, etc. and apply them to their practice. Also, social workers aspire to contribute to the knowledge base of their profession.
Attribution Theory
Focuses on the "cause" of behavior. People draw difference conclusion based on their own perspectives or points of view.
Conflict Perspective
Those in power want to stay in power, limiting opportunities for those not in power. Conflict between those who have access and those who don't.
Psychodynamic Theory
Pertaining to the cognitive, emotional, and volitional mental processes that consciously and unconsciously motivate behavior. These processes are the interplay between genetic and biological heritage, the sociocultural milieu, past and current realities, perceptual abilities and distortions, and one's unique experiences and memories
Regression
Behaviors and thought patterns that indicate a return to earlier or more primitive level of development.
Psychosocial Theory
Concerned with both the internal and external causes of dysfunction, the psychosocial approach is a systems approach. The primary system of interest is the person-in-environment.
Assessment
Investigation and determination of variables affecting an identifying problems or issues as viewed from micro, mezzo, or macro perspective.
Treatment Groups
Helps individuals solve personal problems, change unwanted behaviors, cope with stress, and improve quality of life
Task Groups
Applies the principals of groups dynamics to solve problems, develop ideas, formulate plans, and achieve goals
NASW Mission Statement
To enhance human well-being and hep meet the basic human needs of all people, with particular attention to the need of all people, with particular attention to the needs of and empowerment of people who are vulnerable, oppressed and living in poverty
Engagement
Initial period when social worker orient themselves to the problem and begins to establish communication and relationship with the client.
Planning
Specifies what should be done.
Implementation
Process whereby client and worker follow their plan to achieve their goals.
Evaluation
Process of determining whether a given change effort was worthwhile
Termination
End of the professional worker-client relationship.
Types of Terminations
Natural, Unplanned, Forced
Social Welfare
The way a society organizes to meet the needs of its people.
Social Welfare Policy
The laws and regulations that govern which social welfare programs exist, what categories of clients are served, and who qualifies for certain program.
Agency Policy
The standards adopted by individual organizations and programs that provide services
Non-Profit Agency
Agencies that seek to accomplish some service provision goal, not to make a profit for private owners. Sources of funding can include tax monies, private donations, grants, and service fees.
For-Profit
Agencies that provide some designated social services, often similar to those provided by nonprofit social agencies. However, a primary purpose for the existence of a proprietary social agency is to earn a profit for its owners
Social Service
Wide range of activities that social workers perform to help people solve problems and improve their personal well-being
Resiliency
Ability of an individual, family, group, community or organization to recover from adversity and resume functioning even when suffering serious trouble, confusion or hardship
Educator
One who gives information and teaches skills to other systems
Broker
One who links client systems to needed resources
Case Manager
One, who on the behalf of a specific client, coordinates needed services provided by any number of agencies, organizations, or facilities
Mobilizer
Identifies and convenes community people and resources to identify unmet community needs and effect changes for the better in their community
Mediator
One who resolves arguments or disagreements among micro, mezzo, or macro systems in conflict
Facilitator
One who guides a group experience
Advocate
One who steps forward and speaks out on the behalf of clients in order to promote fair and equitable treatment or gain needed resources
Self-Determination
Each individual's right to make his or her own decision
Inductive Research
Collecting data and then developing theory that explains patterns in the data; begins with specific data which is then used to develop (induce) a general explanation (a theory) to account for the data.
Deductive Research
Starts with social theory and testing some of its implications with data, the type of research in which a specific expectation is deduced from a general premise and is then tested
Nominal Definitions
Define concepts in terms of other concepts
Operationalization
Process of connecting concepts to observations.
Measurement Levels in Research
Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
Face Validity
Establishes how well the assessment appears to measure it's purpose.
Content Validity
Refers to how accurately an assessment or measurement tool taps into the various aspects of the specific construct in question
SOAP Note
Subjective, objective, assessment, plan
Family Preservation Services
Short-term, family-based services designed to assist families in crisis by improving parenting and family functioning while keeping children safe
Adoption and Safe Families Act (1997)
Expedited timeline for decision making for children in foster care, increased attention to the safety of children, recognized kinship as a priority option, provided incentives for adoption, expanded services for reunification and adoption promotion, clarified definition of "reasonable efforts" on behalf of foster care children, established outcome measures to track state performance
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (1996)
Evolved out of 1996 policy changes to the Aid for Families with Dependent Children program, which started as part of the Social Security Act of 1935; provided cash assistance to any family who qualified and was poor; placed a limit of 24 consecutive months and total of 5 years ability to receive assistance through this program.
SNAP
Nutrition program run by the Department of Agriculture which provides assistance to low-income persons in order to provide money for food
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
Provided cash assistance to any family who qualified and was poor for an unlimited amount of time
Diversity Perspective
Emphasizes the incredible diversity of social workers and their clients
In-Kind Benefits
Aid in the form of tangible items
Social Insurance Programs
Aims to prevent poverty; available regardless of income level; unemployment Insurance, workers compensation, veterans health insurance, old age survivors insurance
Public Assistance Programs
Aims to alleviate poverty; they are means tested programs; TANF, SSI, General Assistance, Medicaid, Food Stamps, Public Housing, WIC
Biological Determinism
Innate biological characteristics have been used to explain and justify the mistreatment of various groups of people.
Social Security Act (1935)
Provides old-age benefits for retirees, disability, and survivor benefits for spouses and children.
Absolute Poverty
Uses a dollar value that is firmly set
Relative Poverty
Uses comparisons to determine who is poor and who is not
Poverty Threshold
Federal and state governments use absolute measures to determine eligibility for social service programs. Also called the poverty line.
Poverty Guidelines
Thresholds used to determine eligibility for income support programs through the Department of Health and Human Services.
Medicaid
A program established in 1965; a joint federal and state program that helps low-income individuals or families pay for the costs associated with long-term medical and custodial care
Medicare
A program established in 1965 by Title XVIII of the Social Security Act; federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease
504 Plans
Prevents discrimination on the basis of disability in programs and activities, public and/or private, that receive federal financial assistance
Title IX
United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Ensures rights of nondiscriminatory treatment in all aspects of disabled individuals lives; fair and appropriate education, appropriate evaluation, individualized education program, least restrictive environment, parent and student participation in decision making, procedural safeguards
Earned Income Tax Credit
A provision of a 1975 law; entitles working families with children to receive money from the government if their total income is below a certain level
Older Americans Act
The original legislation established authority for grants to States for community planning and social services, research and development projects, and personnel training in the field of aging.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991; banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commercial buildings.
Affordable Health Care Act
Also known as Obamacare; series of rules and regulations that among other things prevents insurance companies from denying coverage based on pre-existing health conditions and requires employers to pay for private health insurance for their employees and if self-employed, individuals must purchase health insurance on their own, or face penalties.
Violence Against Women Act
Allowed victims of gender-motivated violence, including rape, to sue their attackers for monetary damages in federal court
Adjustment Disorders
Emotional Symptoms (anxiety, depression) causing impairment following an identifiable psychosocial stressor (divorce, illness) and lasting less than 6 months.
Continuity of Care
Efficient ongoing provision of services by different or the same agencies to meet clients' needs as their circumstances and needs change.
Dissociative Disorders
Involves disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
Enablers
Assume increasing responsibility for maintaining family functioning and making excuses on the abuser's behalf
Disengaged Families
Cut off from one another both emotionally and cut off from involvement.
Enmeshed Families
Overbearing and intrusive on the family member's life.
Double-Bind
When an individual expresses a message that can be interpreted in two or more contradictory or mutually exclusive ways. The recipient of the message is than stuck, prevented from escaping the consequences or commenting on the contradiction.
Gatekeeping
Social work faculty protect the profession by screening students based on their competence to practice.
Triangulation
When a third person has been drawn into an interaction or relationship that should only be between two people
Transtheoretical Model
Long-term change tends to proceed sequentially in five stages
TTM Stage 1
Precontemplation
TTM Stage 2
Contemplation
TTM Stage 3
Preparation
TTM Stage 4
Action
TTM Stage 5
Maintenance
Precontemplation
-the person is not truly convinced about the importance of the lifestyle goal
-no intention to change in the near future
-unmotivated, hard to reach
Contemplation
-the person has no definite plan for when to begin but would like to change (within the next 6 months)
-aware of pros and cons of changing
-fence sitters
-may get stuck at this stage
Preparation
-the person has set a date to begin the new behavior and is planning the best strategy to carry out the change
-intention to take action in the next month or so
-may have began to take some significant action in the past year
-unstable phase
Action
-the person is engaged in making changes
-made some changes in the past 6 months
-high risk for relapse because benefits may not be readily apparent
Maintenance
-the person is working to integrate the lifestyle change into normal day-to-day life
-practicing the behavior for at least 6 months
-making it a habit
-committed
Activist
Using direct action to show support or opposition for a social issue
Negotiator
Arranging and setting a problem and solution with discussion between two or more parties
Initiator
Acting as the starting force of a "helping relationship"; engaging others as part of the service plan
Closed Systems
Relatively rigid boundaries that prevent the input or export of information or feedback.
Open Systems
Relatively permeable boundaries permitting a more free exchange.
Seven Phases of Skills
Preparing, beginning, exploring, assessing, contracting, working and evaluating, and ending
Preparing (Phase I)
Examining and considering information available to you and your agency before an initial contact with another person or people
Beginning (Phase II)
Competent use of beginning skills helps ensure that meetings are purposeful and productive
Exploring (Phase III)
Collaborative examination of the current state of the presenting problems or issues of concern, as well as an overview of their origin and history
Assessing (Phase IV)
Involves career-long learning and critical thinking as you work with the client's firsthand experience in a collaborative process of reflection, analysis, and synthesis
Contracting (Phase V)
Development of a service agreement between the worker and the client
Working and Evaluation (Phase VI)
Implementation of the service agreement, should consistently relate to the contract for work and be goal-driven
Ending (Phase VII)
Reviewing the process, final evaluation, and recording the closing summary
SMART Goals
Specific, measurable, action-oriented, realistic, and timely
Duty to Respect Privacy
You are not entitled to intrude on the privacy of the prospective or current clients
Duty to Maintain Confidentiality
Requires that information shared by clients remains confidential
Duty to Inform
The obligation to educate clients concerning the nature and extent of the services you and your agency offer
Duty to Report
Legal obligation to report to designated governmental authorities indications of certain outrages against humanity; must report suspicion of certain criminal behaviors, including child abuse, child neglect, child molestation, incest, etc.
Duty to Warn and Protect
Responsibility to warn potential victims and take action to protect people a client might harm.
Dynamic Risk Factor
Factors that change over time
Static Risk Factor
Factors that do not change and will remain the same
Cluster A Personality Disorders
Paranoid, Schizoid & Schizotypal
Cluster B Personality Disorders
Anti-Social, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic
Cluster C Personality Disorders
Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder