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List some fossil fuels and their purpose?

Coal, oil and natural gases. They provide most of our needs (non renewable resource)

Explain the ozone layer?

A gas in the stratosphere (o3) because there are three oxygens. Ozone is poisonous

What are some environmental effects of Fossil Fuels?

Air and water pollution and global warming

What is CFC? What does it do to the ozone?

Chloral Floral Carbon. It thins the ozone

How can you prevent fossil fuel pollution?

Scrubbers, cyclone separators, bag house filters, catalytic converters and energy conservation

Explain what nuclear energy is and what it does?

Uses uranium fuel to create electricity - highly radioactive waste is produce (non renewable resource)

What are some alternative renewable resources?

Solar power, wind, hydroelectric, biomass and geothermal

What is carcinogen?

Anything that causes cancer (ex: radiation or chrome six)

What sphere do we live in?


How can you reduce green house gases?

Public transportation, walking and carpooling

What is irrigation?

When farmers pump water for their crops. You can replenish the water with snow.

What is a result of overcropping?

Soil erosion

What are some effects of global warming?

Hurricanes, flooding and melting of the ice caps

What are some greenhouse gases?

Carbon, water vapor and methane (CH4)

Where is methane produced?

Land fills

What are the three types of pollution?

Water pollution, solid waste pollution and air pollution

Who was Erin Brockovich?

Worked and solved a case about the contamination of chromium six in the ground water

What is chromium six?

unstable compound formed by the addition of acidified hydrogen peroxide solutions to solutions of chromates, such as sodium chromate.

What are keystone species? Give examples.

Species who's role in an ecosystem is more important than their numbers suggest (sea otters, dung beetles and bats)

What are two things that destroy ecosystems?

Habitat destruction and pesticide use

List some non renewable resources.

Oils, metals and plastic

Where does energy come from?

Fossil fuels

What is the atmosphere?

Air enveloping the earth - it divides into layers

What is the troposphere?

Innermost layer that contains 75 percent of the mass of the earth's air

What is the stratosphere?

Second layer of the atmosphere - contains the ozone layer

How are we disrupting the earth's gaseous nutrient cycles?

Carbon dioxide addition; burning fossil fuels and using fertilizers adds nitrogen oxides; adding SO2 from refining and fossil burning; and toxic metals

What is air pollution?

The presence of one or more chemicals in the atmosphere in quantities and duration that causes harm to humans, other forms of life and materials

What is air pollutant?

A chemical in the wrong place in the wrong concentration (ozone)

What are primary pollutants?

Materials added to the troposphere from natural events (volcanoes) and human activities

What are secondary pollutants?

Pollutants formed when primary poll reacts with each other or the air to form new pollutants

What's another word for photo chemical smog?

Brown Air Smog

What is photo chemical smog?

A mixture of primary and secondary pollutants formed under the influence of sunlight

What are PANS?

Peroxyaeyl nitrates - produces tears when in contact with animals

What is NO2

Nitrogen dioxide - a yellow/brown gas with a choking odor. It can damage lungs, crops and trees

What is another word for industrial smog?

Gray air smog

What is industrial smog?

Mixture of sulfur dioxide suspended droplets of sulfuric acid and other particles. Burning of coal and oil in power and heating.

What are some factors that influence photo chemical and industrial smog?

Temperature inversion and acid deposition

What is temperature inversion?

(thermal inversion) caused when a dense, cool layer of air becomes trapped beneath a layer of less dense war air

What is acid deposition?

Mix of dry and wet acidic chemicals that descend to earth

How can you reduce acid deposition?

Reduce energy use; switch from coal to natural gas; remove sulfur from coal; remove SO2 and nitrogen oxides from smoke gases; remove nitrogen oxides from motor vehicle exhaust

What is sick building syndrome?

A building is "sick" when at least 20% of its occupants suffer persistent symptoms that disappear when they go outside

What are air pollution's effect on humans?

Lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and emphysema

What are the laws to reduce air pollution?

Clean Air Acts (1970, 1977, 1990)

What are the clean air acts?

Provided federal air pollution regulations (cost money to enforce, but saves more money in health and ecological benefits). Prevent not cleanup.

How can we reduce outdoor air pollution?

Electrostatic precipitator; bag house filter; cyclone separator; wet scrubber

What is biomass?

Combined dry weight of all organic matter contained in organisms for each tropic level

Describe the energy flow?

Sunglight - producers - herbivores - carnivores - decomposers (90% loss at each transfer)

Describe the biomass of the tropic levels?

3rd order consumers - 2nd consumers - 1st consumers - producers

What is gross primary productivity?

The rate at which an ecosystem's producers convert solar energy into chemical energy as biomass through photosynthesis

What is the new primary productivity?

(NPP) some of gross PP is used up by plants in respiration - what's left is NPP

Explain the carbon cycle?

A global gaseous cycle based on carbon dioxide gas

Explain nitrogen cycle?

Most complex cycle, a global gaseous cycle involving Nitrogen converting bacteria and lightning

Explain the phosphorus cycle?

Cycles through the earth's crust, water and living organisms

Explain the sulfur cycle?

Tied up in rocks and minerals SO2 comes from volcanoes and burning fossil fuels. SO2 mixes with oxygen in our air to form SO3 which in 1/3 of all sulfur in the air comes from human activity

List three ecosystem services?

Climate control; provide and renew air, water and soil; provides biodiversity

What is a limiting factor?

One factor that is more important than others in regulating population growth

What is an invasive species?

Species that doesn't belong (ex: lamprey in great lakes)

What is environmental resistance?

All factors acting jointly to limit growth of a population

What did chromium six do?

Got into ground water and caused tumors and other medical problems

What is a lichen?

Half fungi and half bacteria

What is ecological succession?

Gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem

What is the pioneer stage and what are some typical organisms?

First stage of succession (ex: lichen)

List characteristics of the climax community?

Large body size, few offspring and one generation per season

Distinguish primary and secondary succession?

Primary is the colonization of living organisms and secondary is regeneration

What is commenalism?

One organisms benefits while the other is unharmed

What is mutualism?

Both organisms benefit

What is paristism?

One organism benefits and the other is harmed

What is symbiosis?

Is a close relationship between organisms of different species. At least one of the organisms depends on this relationship to survive

What human activity has probably contributed to the most acidification of the lakes in the Adirondack region?

Burning fossil fuels that produce air pollutants containing sulfur and nitrogen

In an ecosystem, what component is NOT recycled?


Which element is NOT recycled throughout an ecosystem by the processes of photosynthesis and respiration?


Reforestation and overcropping are two ways to?

Reclaim lost ecosystems

Define consumer

Heterotrophs that feed on producers or other consumers

Define food chain

The pathway that food energy takes through an ecosystem

Define food energy

The amount of energy obtained from food that is available through cellular respiration

Define food web

A group of connected food chains

Define producer (give examples)

Autotrophic organisms that produce food for consumers (red maples, spider plants)

What type of energy do plants use of the sun to make food?

Light energy

Where is the food stored in the plant?

The cell

Why are plants called producers?

Because they make food

What are plant-eating animals called?

Primary consumers

What are animals that eat other animals called?

Secondary consumers

Give an example of a food chain.

(producer) seed ------> (primary consumer) sparrow ------> (secondary consumer) hawk

What is Ecological Succession?

Changes that occur in a community over time

What happens to an ecosystem after a volcanic eruption or a forest fire?

-some plants whose roots have survived will sprout back up
-many plants whose seeds are already in the ground are activated after a fire and will sprout up soon after the fire, usually the next growing season
-woodier plants and trees also start growing soon after the fire, but grow at a slower rate
-after a few years, the burned forest thickens with woodier plants and sapling trees
-it may take 200 years to reach a fully mature stand again

What is Primary Succession?

The development of living things that occurs where no living things or soil exist

What is Secondary Succession?

A process started by an event that reduces an already established ecosystem

What is a pioneer species?

They are the first organisms to appear in a newly made habitat

What happens as the pioneer species dies?

They add fertile nutrients to the soil and they also break up the rocks helping to create soil, so new organisms can populate the area

What is symbiosis?

A close relationship living in/on another organism

What is Ecology?

The study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment

What is the Biosphere?

Thin zone of earth that supports life

What are the Ecosystems? (give examples)

Smaller units that make up the biosphere. All living and non-living parts of the environment. (Pond, Garden)

What is Biotic? (give examples)

Living factors in an ecosystem (ducks, fish, turtles, frogs, insects, dragonflies, bacteria)

What is Abiotic? (give examples)

Non-living factors in an ecosystem (water, rocks, sunlight, dirt)

What is a Community?

All biotic (living organisms) in a certain area (ecosystem) (all populations)

What is a Population?

All organisms of the same species living in an ecosystem

What is a Habitat?

Where an organism lives

What is food made up of?

4 Organic Compounds (nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, carbs)

What is a Niche? (give an example)

Role or job of an organism in the ecosystem (a mushroom as a decomposer)

What is a climax community?

Stable collection of organisms

What are Herbivores? (give examples)

Animals that feed only on plants (grasshoppers, giraffes, cows, deers, rabbits, elephants)

What are Carnivores? (give examples)

Animals that feed on other animals and eat meat (shark, lion, tiger)

What are Predators? (give examples)

Carnivores that attack and kill prey (lions, sharks, pumas, eagles, bears, snakes)

What are Scavengers? (give examples)

Carnivores that feed on dead animals (vultures, hyenas, seagulls, rats, crows)

What are Omnivores? (give examples)

Feed on both plants and animals (humans, dogs)

What are Saprobes (Saprophytes)

Decomposers that break down remains of dead plants and animals

What are the three types of symbiotic relationships?

Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism

What is Mutualism? (give examples)

Both organisms benefit (clownfish and sea anemone)

What is Commensalism? (give examples)

1 organism benefits and the other organism isn't harmed (shark and remora)

What is Parasitism? (give examples)

1 organism benefits and the other is harmed (flea and dog)

What are the effects of too much heat in the atmosphere?

Glaciers and ice caps melt and kill arctic animals

Why is CO2 a problem in the atmosphere?

It is thickening, creating, and trapping heat

What is the ecosystem made up of?

plants, animals, bacteria, weather, temperature, rain, sunlight, water, rocks, minerals, terrain, and decomposers

How do humans alter ecosystems?

They create pollution by burning gasoline and get soot (powdery, black incomplete carbon material)

What do plants use for photosynthesis?


When ice goes to the ocean, what will happen to this cities?

They will go under water

What is the niche of saprobes?

To turn organic compounds into inorganic compounds for plants to eat

The science of ecology is best defined as the study of..?

the interactions of living organisms and their environment

The study of the interactions between organisms and their interrelationships with the physical environment is known as..?


All of Earth's water, land, and atmosphere within which life exists is known as..?

the biosphere

What phrase can be used to best describe an ecosystem?

all the living organisms in a specific location

Which statement concerning an ecosystem is correct?

it involves interactions between biotic and abiotic factors

For a natural ecosystem to be self-sustaining, many essential chemical elements must be..?

cycled between organisms and the environment

What statement could best describe all stable ecosystems?

the populations of predators are dependent on the populations of their prey

In an ecosystem, the calcium compounds found in rocks are best described as..?

inorganic and abiotic

Which is an abiotic factor that functions as a limiting factor for the autotrophs in the ecosystem below?


Which is an abiotic factor that would affect ability of a species of tree to survive in a particular habitat?

availability of minerals in the soil

What are some abiotic factors?

soil, water, air, and sunlight

In an ecosystem, symbiotic relationships exist among the...?

biotic factors

An abiotic factor component of the biosphere is represented by the..?

annual range of temperatures in a lake in New York State

Two abiotic factors that determine which terrestrial biome is found in a geographical area are..?

temperature and moisture

The abiotic factors of a given area include the..?

climatic conditions

A particular species of freshwater mussel (a small clam-like animal) inhabits the shallow water of a large lake, where it lives and breeds. These mussels are referred to as..?

an aquatic biome

When a partially rotted log was turned over, fungi, termites, pill bugs, ants, slugs, and earthworms were found to be living in and around it. These organisms collectively represent a..?


Two different species of insect-eating birds feed and nest at different levels in the same evergreen tree. In this way they avoid..?


An ecosystem will most likely remain stable if..?

there is a lot of biodiversity

The widest variety of genetic material that can be used by humans for future agricultural or medical research would most likely be found in..?

an ecosystem having significant biodiversity

What is an element that is not recycled throughout an ecosystem by the processes of photosynthesis and respiration?


In an ecosystem, what happens to the atoms of certain chemical elements such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen?

They move into and out of living systems

Which two life functions of animals help maintain the water cycle by recycling water back into the environment?

synthesis and locomotion

Which processes are involved in the water cycle?

respiration, photosynthesis, evaporation, and condensation

Protein synthesis is most closely associated with the..?

nitrogen cycle

What is an example of a predator-prey relationship?

owl and mouse

Animals that feed exclusively on herbivores are known as..?


Which relationship best describes the interactions between lettuce and a rabbit?


In the nutritional relationship between heartworms and a dog, the heartworms benefit at the expense of the dog. This relationship is known as..?


Which type of relationship is illustrated by a protozoan causing the disease malaria in a human host?


The roots of a mistletoe plant absorb nutrients from living oak trees, causing some damage to the tissues of the trees is an example of what kind of symbiotic relationship?


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