(Adenine & Guanine) two rings of carbon and nitrogen.
(Cytosine & Thymine) one ring of carbon and nitrogen
Backbone of Helix
Covalent bonds alternating between phosphate groups and sugars.
Weak Hydrogen bonds between bases.
Five Stages of DNA Replication
1. DNA Untwists- An enzyme called helicase causes the molecule to untwist. 2. DNA Unzips. 3. An enzyme attaches free nucleotides to the complementary base pairs- The enzymes here are called DNA Polymerase. 4. The two copies separate. 5. The DNA twists again to form a helix.
A change in DNA Replication
Two Steps to Making Proteins
Transcription and Translation.
- making RNA from DNA code), Part of a DNA molecule is copied to mRNA. -mRNA nucleotides pair with "unzipped" DNA.
sending RNA to ribosomes and making proteins.
Function of RNA
Carries out genetic instructions contained in DNA.
Structure of RNA
Single strand, Ribose sugar, Uracil pairs with adenine.
- The DNA decoding tool. ("m" stands for messenger). - mRNA copies the DNA strand, leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm. - In the cytoplasm, mRNA attaches to a ribosome where the code is "translated".
The groups of three that nucleotides are read in.
What is the Start Codon of Translation?
What is a nucleotide found in DNA?
Deoxyribose cytosine phosphate group
Which are found in both DNA and RNA.
Phosphate groups, guanine and cytosine.
What is produced during transcription?
What happens during the process of translation?
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
The role of tRNA is to transport...
How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?
Three Results of Mutations
Bad, Neutral, and Good
What Four things cause mutations?
Error during replication, Error during crossing over in meiosis, Random Change, Physical or chemical substances (UV light, X-Rays, pesticides).
Two Examples of Antibiotic Resistance
1. Sickle Cell Disease 2. Antibiotic Resistant
What is inquiry based science?
Science based on questions.
Observable Data, not so much numerical.
Based on Numerical Data.
The sticking together of particles of the same substance.
The attraction of unlike molecules.
What makes a water molecule polar?
The water molecule has one side that is negatively charged and one that is positively charged.
Cannot be broken down any further.
Combination of different elements.
Found in the outer cloud around the nucleus.
Found in the nucleus, negatively charged.
Found in the nucleus, positively charged.
Specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of cells.
What is the first step of protein synthesis?
What is the second step of protein synthesis?
Where does the first step of protein synthesis occur?
Where does the 2nd step of protein synthesis occur?
The bases on tRNA.
A variation of a particular character
The study of heredity
Did experiments that led him to draw conclusions about inheritance patterns in pea plants.
Sperm from the pollen of one flower fertilizes the eggs of a flower in a different plant.
States that parents pass on genes to their offspring that are responsible for traits.
Explained how offspring inherit traits from both parents
True Breeding Plant
Produces offspring identical to itself generation after generation.
The offspring of 2 different true breeding varieties.
a pairing in which the parent plants differ in only one character.
alternative forms of genes.
When the two alleles are the same.
When the two alleles are different
When only one of the two different alleles appear to affect the trait.
Allele that doesnt appear to affect the trait.
Genetic makeup of alleles
Breeds an individual of unknown genotype.
when during gamete formation is an f2 cross, a particular allele for one character can be paired with either allele of another character.
When heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotype of the two homozygotes.
Inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct trait of both alleles.
Combined effect of two or more genes on a single character.
Sex- Linked Gene
Gene located on a sex chromosome.
Family tree that records and traces the occurrence of a trait.
Someone who has one copy of an allele.
Change over time.
Observed the variety of living things and wondered how diversity came to be.
More offspring are born than can survive, survival of the fittest.
Structures that seem to have little or no purpose in the organism.
Evidence of Ancient organisms with very different characteristics than today's organisms.
"Study of Embryos"
People breeding organisms for a specific trait.
mutation that improves ability to survive and reproduce in a certain environment.
Smallest scale to look at evolution,
population suddenly reduced.
small number of a species colonize an isolated area, like an island. `