280 terms

Pre-AP Biology Final


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all the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems
community of living things plus the nonliving features of the environment that support them
basic unit of living matter; separated from its environment by a plasma membrane
molecule responsible for inheritance; nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
5 Levels of Biology
Biosphere, DNA, Ecosystems, Organisms, Cells.
Five Characteristics of Life
Living things are made of cells, use and obtain energy, respond to their environment, grow and develop, and reproduce.
Prokaryotic Cell
cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles
Eukaryotic Cell
cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles
Inorganic Substances
Chemicals in the body that lack carbon.
Organic Compounds
Molecules in the body that contain both carbon and hydrogen.
4 Inorganic Substances
Water, Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, and Inorganic Cells.
4 Macromolecules
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, and Lipids.
small molecule unit (one unit).
many monomers bonded together
"Water Loving"
"Water Fearing"
What do Carbohydrates contain?
Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen
What is a monomer of Carbohydrates?
Function of Carbohydrates
Stores energy
many monomers
Function of Lipids
- Building blocks of cell
- circulate chemicals
- store energy (fat)
Structure of Lipids
Caron, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Saturated Fat
all bonds in fatty acid chain, usually solid at room temperature, bad for you.
Unsaturated Fat
Double bond, liquid at room temperature
Nucleic Acid Monomer
Nucleotides three parts
Sugar, ribose, or deoxyribose
Function of Nucleic Acid
Builds DNA
Structure of a Protein
Carbon, Hydrogen Oxygen and Nitrogen
Functions of proteins
store nutrients, defends body, speed up chemical reactions, and forms structures.
Protein monomer
Amino Acid
Long chain of amino acids
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
created the first microscope by placing several magnifying lenses in a series
Robert Hooke
used an early microscope to observe many things. He was the first to describe "cells".
3 Types of Microscopes
Compound, Electron and Scanning Probe Microscope.
Compound Microscope
multi- lens microscope used to study living organisms and non- living material.
Electron Microscope
Beam of electrons is used to examine a non- living sample instead of light.
Scanning Probe Microscope
Surface of a sample is traced with a tiny probe to create an image.
The Cell Theory States...
- All living things are composed of cells.
- Cells are the smallest unit of living things.
- All cells come from preexisting cells by cell division.
2 Types of Cells
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic Cell
contains no nucleus, first cells to appear on Earth.
Eukaryotic Cell
contain a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles, evolved from prokaryotic cells.
Cell Membrane
separates and protects the cell from its surroundings.
Selectively Permeable
Allows only certain things to pass through.
Phospholipid Molecules
the main component of the cell membrane. They have a polar head and a non- polar tail.
The Cell Membranes Carbohydrates Function
Cell Wall
Located outside of the cell membrane.
Helps to support and protect the cell.
Passive Transport
Substances cross the membrane without the cell using energy in this type of transport.
Forms of Passive Transport
Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Osmosis.
random movement of molecules causing particles to move from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion of substances across the cell membrane through protein channels.
movement of water across a membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area with low water concentration.
Osmotic Pressure
Pressure created by osmosis
Active Pressure
movement of a substance from a region of low concentration to an area of high concentration, requires the use of energy.
Nucleus of a Cell
manages cell functions, contains DNA
Nuclear Envelop of a Cell
membrane that regulates transport of materials.
strand of DNA, condense to form chromosomes.
Region of nucleus that makes ribosomes.
assemble proteins according to DNA code.
breaks down food to release energy.
organelle in plants that transforms light energy into sugars (plants only).
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Transport and process molecules; has ribosomes on its surface.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Transport and process molecules, especially lipids.
Golgi Apparatus
Membrane sacks that receive new proteins from E.R. and Transport them to Cell Membrane.
temporary storage( plants only)
Contains digestive enzymes to break down waste and invaders.
Thin filaments that provide support
"self feeder", makes food from organic materials, producer
Photosynthesis Formula
Sunlight+ CO2+ H2O --> Glucose+ O2
"other eaters", get food by eating other organisms, consumers.
Cellular Respiration Formula (mitochondria)
Glucose+ O2 --> ATP+ CO2+H2O
The ability to perform work.
Potential Energy
Energy that is stored; may be converted to other types of energy.
Kinetic Energy
Comes from potential energy. (movement)
Thermal Energy
Comes from potential energy. (heat produced)
Chemical Energy
Potential to do work to the structure of molecules, rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions releases energy.
Amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degrees Celsius.
Adenosine Triphosphate
Structure of ATP
- 1 Adenine Molecule.
- 1 Ribose Molecule.
- 3 Phosphate Molecules.
Three main Types of Cellular Work
Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Work
Chemical Work
Building a large molecule (like proteins)
Mechanical Work
Moving a muscle protein.
Transport Work
Pumping solutes across a membrane.
The ATP Cycle
ATP --> ADP --> ATP --> ADP --> ATP --> ADP
Aerobic Process
Process that requires oxygen.
Three Parts to Cellular Respiration
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
Meaning of Glycolosis
"Splitting of Sugar"
Location of Glycolosis
Result of Glycolosis
2 Electron Carrying Molecules, 4 ATP Molecules.
Location of the Krebs Cycle
What do each pyruvic acid molecule produce?
1 ATP, CO2, More electrons, and Net gain of 2 ATP.
What is Pyruvic Acid converted to in the Krebs Cycle?
Acetyl CoA
Location of Electron Transport Chain
Inner Membrane of Mitochondria
Parts of a Leaf
Mesophyll, Stomata.
inner layer of tissue in a leaf, where the chloroplast are clustered.
tiny pores on a leaf (bottom of the leaf).
4 Structures of a Chloroplast
Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Granum.
chemical, gives green color, pigment that captures the suns energy.
Thick fluid inside the inner membrane.
Disc shaped sacs in Stroma
Stack of Thylakoids.
Two Parts to Photosynthesis
Light Reactions and The Calvin Cycle
Location of the Light Reactions
3 Steps to Light Reactions
1. Energy from sunlight removes electrons from H2O.
2. O2 becomes waste and escapes through stomata.
3. H+ and electrons from NADPH and ATP.
Location of the Calvin Cycle
The Carbon Cycle
- plants convert carbon dioxide into organic carbon.
- Critical on Global Scale
The Greenhouse Effect
Can trap heat in the Atmosphere
Two Types of Cell Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction and Sexual Reproduction.
Asexual Reproduction
Single cell splits in two, each cell is identical.
Inherit genetic material from single parent.
Sexual Reproduction
Requires genetic material from two parents.
Sister Chromatids
two identical chromosomes joined together and form "X" shape, forms before cell division
Area where sister chromatids join.
The Cell Cycle
The series of changes a cell undergoes from the time it is formed until it reproduces.
Two Stages of the Cell Cycle
Interphase and Mitosis
Carries out its normal functions, making proteins, reproducing organelles, growing in size.
Three Stages of Interphase
S Phase, G1 Phase, and G2 Phase
The "S" Phase
DNA Duplicated (SYNTHESIS)
G1 and G2 Phases
Short periods between the S-Phase.
The division of the nucleus that results in each new daughter cell receiving an exact copy of the original cells genetic material.
Five Steps of Mitosis
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
1st stage of mitosis, DNA condenses into chromosomes, centrioles migrate to poles, spindle fibers form, nuclear membrane disappears.
Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres, chromosomes align midway between centrioles.
Spindle fibers contract and pull the sister chromatids toward the centrioles.
nuclear envelop reappears, chromosomes unwind and lengthen.
begins during anaphase of mitosis and continues as the two new cells form.
Uncontrolled Cell Division
Malignant Tumor
A tumor that IS cancerous
Benign Tumor
A tumor that is NOT cancerous
Three Types of Cancer Treatment
Surgery- remove tumor
Radiation- high energy radiation on specific body locations.
Chemo- Drugs that disrupt cell division
Sperm and Egg cells, contain 1/2 the chromosomes found in normal cells. (23)
Amount of Chromosomes in Humans
Haploid Cell
Gametes containing one set of chromosomes. 1/2 the total amount.
Diploid Cell
Cells containing double set of chromosomes.
Cell division where four different cells are created, each with half the "normal" number of Chromosomes.
Five Stages of Meiosis
Meiosis I, Interphase I, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Meiosis II.
Meiosis I
Homologous chromosomes, each with 2 sister chromatids are separated from each other.
Interphase I
Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes, During interphase each of these duplicates to form a sister chromatid.
Prophase I
Homologous chromosomes pair up to form a Tetrad, Sister chromatids in the tetrad may exchange information in a process called Crossing Over.
Meiosis II
Sister chromatids are separated resulting in four haploid cells, The nucleus of a haploid sperm fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg during fertilization to form a diploid zygote.
Chargaff's Rule
Three Parts to a Nucleotide
Phosphate Group, 5 Carbon Sugar, Nitrogenous Base.
(Adenine & Guanine) two rings of carbon and nitrogen.
(Cytosine & Thymine) one ring of carbon and nitrogen
Backbone of Helix
Covalent bonds alternating between phosphate groups and sugars.
Nitrogenous Bases
Weak Hydrogen bonds between bases.
Five Stages of DNA Replication
1. DNA Untwists- An enzyme called helicase causes the molecule to untwist.
2. DNA Unzips.
3. An enzyme attaches free nucleotides to the complementary base pairs- The enzymes here are called DNA Polymerase.
4. The two copies separate.
5. The DNA twists again to form a helix.
A change in DNA Replication
Two Steps to Making Proteins
Transcription and Translation.
- making RNA from DNA code), Part of a DNA molecule is copied to mRNA.
-mRNA nucleotides pair with "unzipped" DNA.
sending RNA to ribosomes and making proteins.
Function of RNA
Carries out genetic instructions contained in DNA.
Structure of RNA
Single strand, Ribose sugar, Uracil pairs with adenine.
- The DNA decoding tool. ("m" stands for messenger).
- mRNA copies the DNA strand, leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm.
- In the cytoplasm, mRNA attaches to a ribosome where the code is "translated".
The groups of three that nucleotides are read in.
What is the Start Codon of Translation?
What is a nucleotide found in DNA?
Deoxyribose cytosine phosphate group
Which are found in both DNA and RNA.
Phosphate groups, guanine and cytosine.
What is produced during transcription?
RNA molecules.
What happens during the process of translation?
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
The role of tRNA is to transport...
Amino Acids
How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?
Three Results of Mutations
Bad, Neutral, and Good
What Four things cause mutations?
Error during replication, Error during crossing over in meiosis, Random Change, Physical or chemical substances (UV light, X-Rays, pesticides).
Two Examples of Antibiotic Resistance
1. Sickle Cell Disease 2. Antibiotic Resistant
What is inquiry based science?
Science based on questions.
Qualitative Data
Observable Data, not so much numerical.
Based on Numerical Data.
The sticking together of particles of the same substance.
The attraction of unlike molecules.
What makes a water molecule polar?
The water molecule has one side that is negatively charged and one that is positively charged.
Cannot be broken down any further.
Combination of different elements.
Found in the outer cloud around the nucleus.
Found in the nucleus, negatively charged.
Found in the nucleus, positively charged.
Specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of cells.
What is the first step of protein synthesis?
What is the second step of protein synthesis?
Where does the first step of protein synthesis occur?
Where does the 2nd step of protein synthesis occur?
Anti- Codons
The bases on tRNA.
A variation of a particular character
The study of heredity
Gregor Mendel
Did experiments that led him to draw conclusions about inheritance patterns in pea plants.
Cross Fertilization
Sperm from the pollen of one flower fertilizes the eggs of a flower in a different plant.
Particulate Hypothesis
States that parents pass on genes to their offspring that are responsible for traits.
Blending Hypothesis
Explained how offspring inherit traits from both parents
True Breeding Plant
Produces offspring identical to itself generation after generation.
The offspring of 2 different true breeding varieties.
Monohybrid Cross
a pairing in which the parent plants differ in only one character.
alternative forms of genes.
When the two alleles are the same.
When the two alleles are different
When only one of the two different alleles appear to affect the trait.
Allele that doesnt appear to affect the trait.
Observable trait
Genetic makeup of alleles
Test Cross
Breeds an individual of unknown genotype.
Independent Assortment
when during gamete formation is an f2 cross, a particular allele for one character can be paired with either allele of another character.
Intermediate Inheritance
When heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotype of the two homozygotes.
Inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct trait of both alleles.
Combined effect of two or more genes on a single character.
Sex- Linked Gene
Gene located on a sex chromosome.
Family tree that records and traces the occurrence of a trait.
Someone who has one copy of an allele.
Change over time.
Charles Darwin
Observed the variety of living things and wondered how diversity came to be.
Natural Selection
More offspring are born than can survive, survival of the fittest.
Vestigial Structures
Structures that seem to have little or no purpose in the organism.
Fossil Record
Evidence of Ancient organisms with very different characteristics than today's organisms.
"Study of Embryos"
Artificial Selection
People breeding organisms for a specific trait.
mutation that improves ability to survive and reproduce in a certain environment.
Micro evolution
Smallest scale to look at evolution,
Bottleneck Effect
population suddenly reduced.
Founder Effect
small number of a species colonize an isolated area, like an island. `
Gene Flow
One population breeds with another population.
organisms live in geographically isolated areas.
identifies, classifies and names species.
Six Kingdoms of Life
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, animals.
Bacteria living in extreme environments, Many survive only in environments with out oxygen.
- They make us sick, decompose our waste, help us digest our food, and much more.
- Prokaryotes (cells without nuclei)
- Very small
Outer covering of cell, protection.
Function of Bacteria Cell Wall
Function of Bacteria Cell Membrane
Controls particle movement
Function of Bacteria Pilli
Attachment to surfaces and reproduction.
Three Basic Shapes of Bacteria
Cocci, Bacilli, and Spirochetes
Spherical Shaped
Rod Shaped
Spiral Shaped
Gram Staining
Process used to determine cell wall type and to identify.
Gram Positive
Thick cell wall, purple, more carbohydrates in cell wall.
Gram Negative
thin cell wall, red, less carbohydrates in cell wall.
Two types of Bacteria Reproduction
Binary Fission, Conjugation
Binary Fission
Asexual reproduction in which bacteria doubles in size, copy DNA, and divided into two identical cells.
Sexual Reproduction when bacteria temporarily join and exchange DNA.
Resting Cell
Not technically alive, cant reproduce on their own, most use host DNA
Structure of Virus
DNA and A Protein Coat.
Two Types of Viruses
Animal Virus and Bacteriophage
Two Stages of Reproduction
Lytic Cycle and Lysogenic Cycle
Four Steps of Lytic Cycle
Virus "hijacks" cell, uses host cell to make viral DNA and protein, cell bursts open, and host cell is killed.
Three Steps of Lysogenic Cycle
Virus inserts DNA into host cell DNA, host cell replicates, eventually host cell is used to make viral DNA and protein.
The variety of living organisms on Earth.
Three Levels of Biodiversity
Ecosystems, Species, and Genetics.
Study of living things interacting with each other and their environment
Abiotic Factors
Non- living factors in an environment
Biotic Factors
Living factors in an environment
Where an organism lives
Five Levels of Ecology
Organisms- Populations- COmmunities- Ecosystems- Biospheres.
Small scale difference in a local climate
Major types of land ecosystems
Coniferous Forest
Characterized by evergreen trees, cool climate.
Deciduous Forest
Characterized by trees that lose their leaves every summer, sunny warm, climate.
Prairie Grassland
Characterized by grasslands, generally lower rainfall, flat hills.
The role an organism has in its environment
Every biotic factor in a certain area
Symbiotic Relationships
Close species interactions.
when the niches of two organisms overlap.
Predator/ Prey
Predator captures the prey and eats it.
Ecological Succession
One species replaced, other species moves in.
Primary Succession
Community beginning in lifeless area without soil.
Secondary Succession
Disturbance occurs, soil stays intact, changes happen.
Introduced Species
Species moved from native location to new area.
Food Chain
Shows the pathway of energy from one trophic level to another.
Food Web
Shows interconnected food chains in an ecosystem.
Organic material produced by sunlight (mostly plants).
Primary Productivity
Rate that producers make biomass.
Three Types of Ecological Pyramids
Energy Distribution, Biomass Pyramid, and Pyramid of Numbers.
The release/ evaporation of water through plants leaves (sweat).
Population Density
Number of individuals of a particular species in a certain area.
A group of organisms of the same species living in an area.
Formula for Population Density
Individuals / Unit Area
Count amount of objects several times and average,
Mark/ Recapture
Animals are trapped, marked and released
Exponential Growth
Population doubles with every generation until carrying capacity is reached.
Carrying Capacity
The number of organisms that an environment can maintain
Limiting Factor
"Factors" that affect a population size.
Density Dependent Factor
Population is limited as population increases.
Density Independent Factor
Factors that limit population but are not related to density.
Boom and Bust Cycle
Populations of two organisms that follow similar patterns.