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english terms...

yayyy!!! we have a test tomorrow on these :)
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alienation
this term, from Marxism, suggests that under Capitalism we live estranged from out true human natures
allegory
a story of some complexity that corresponds to another situation on a deeper level. Animal Farm is about a community of animals, but reflects the Russian Revolution and satirises Communism. The dual perspective, the link between animal story and political story gives it its interest and wit
alliteration
repetition of an identical consonant sound at the beginning of stressed words, usually close together.
allusion
a reference to an event, person, place, work of literature etc. that gives addtional layers of meaning to a text or enlarges its frame of reference.
ambiguity
where language and tone are unclear and may have two or more interpretations or meanings
ambivalence
where the writers attitude to, for example, a charcter or event is not clear cut, but may seem to hold at least two responses
antithesis
contrasting ideas by balancing words of opposite meaning and idea
atmosphere
confused with mood, it is a place, setting or suroundings
assonance
repetition od similar vowel sounds close to one another, middle of word
bathos
a sudden descent from the sublime or serious, to the ridiculous or trivial
bildungsroman
german term for a novel focusing on the development of a character from youth to maturity
blank verse
unrhymed poetry not broken into stanzas, keeping to a strict pattern in each line, usually in iambic pentameter
caesura
a break or pause within a line of poetry by comma or full stop or unmarked pause, used for emphasis, or to change direction or pace
caricature
an exagerrated representation of a character often by emphasizing a small number of features, usually for comic and satiric purposes
protagonist
main character in a work
quatrain
stanza or group of four lines that can have different rhyme schemes
refrain
repetition in a work of literature of a phrase or lines
rhythm
different than metre, flow of sound created by stressed and unstressed syllables
satire
exposing and ridiculing of human follies in a society, sometimes with the aim to reform, sometimes to deflate
setting
where the story takes place
simile
where a comparison is made with like or as
skaz
a technique of narration that mirrors oral narration with its hesitations, corrections, gramatical mistakes, interactions...
soliloquy
a speech by a character alone on stage, thinking aloud, revealing thoughts and emotions, or communicating directly with the audience
sonnet
a 14 line rhyming poem often in iambic pentameter
stanza
the blocks of lines into which a poem is organized
story
the events of a narrative in the chronological order in which they actually happened
stream of consciousness
the impression of a random stream of thoughts
style
necessary concept to know and use, but tricky to define and discuss. the distinctive traits in an author's work, the "how" of writing
subtext
ideas, feelings, thoughts, not dealt directly in the text but existing underneath
symbol
objects that represent or evoke an idea or concept of wider, abstract significance, as roses represent love
syntax
the grammatical structure of words in a sentence. the normal order of words can be slightly displaced to create a particular effect, without losing the sense
theme
central ideas or issues, often abstract explored or illistrated in a text
tone
the technique of writing to convey the attitude of the writer towards his/her subject. created through aspects of language
trochee/trochiac
the reverse of iambic as in:"Mary had a little lamb". It may be used as a contrast within an iambic line, to stress an idea
colloquial
everyday speech and language as opposed to a literary or formal register. the inclusin of the odd____ word or phrase in an otherwise formal work can be striking
conceit
a witty thought ot idea or iage, a fanciful or deliberately far-fetched comparison
concrete
refers to objects or aspects that may be perceived by the senses
connotation
an association that a wrod may suggest. very useful when discussing diciton
consonance
where the final consonants are the same in two or more words close together
contradiction
stating the opposite
couplet
two consecutive rhyming lines of verse. may clinch or emphasise an idea
defamiliarization
the technique of maknig the familiar seem new and strange, and thus making us see more vividly
denouement
literally, from the french, "unknotting." How the ending of a novel or play turns out, how the plot is unravelled or revealed
diction
the writer's choice of words or vocabulary
didactic
describes the tone or intention to preach a point..negative connotation
dramatic irony
a very powerful tool especiall in drama, used for tragic or comic purposes..the character is unaware of something
elegy
a mournful lament for times past or the dead
end stopped line
a lone of poetry where the meaning pauses or stops at the end of the line.. a pause for reflection
enjambement
the opposite of the above..the sense flows over from one line to another, perhaps even to the next stanze
epigram
a concise, ponted, witty statement
form
the shape of a work, the arrangement of its parts, the patterns, divisions and structures used
free verse
verse written without any fixed or traditional structure in meter or rhyme
genre
type of literature
grain
a reader can go acceptingly along with assumptions and values in a text or "go against teh grain", questioning it
hyperbole
a deliberate exagerration for various effects
iambic
unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
idyll/idyllic
refers to innocent simple life in idealised rural setting
imagery
concrete descriptions we can see and sense in works of literature
internal rhyme
where there are rhymes within a line instead of, or as well as, at the ends of lines
irony
gap or mismatch between what is being said and what is intended
lyric
songlike peom expressing personal feeling
metaphor
comparison not using like or as
metre
the organization of lines of verse into regular patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables to achieve a rhythmic effect
mimesis
describes an interesting and common effect: the use of words that suggest movement, shape, size, texture
mood
describes a persons frame of mind or state of feeling
monologue
speech by a single speaker
motif
used with leitmotif, meaning recurrent elements in a work
omniscient narrator
"all knowing"
onomatopoeia
the effect of words that imitate the sound of things
oxymoron
two words of opposite meaning are joined
paradox
seemingly contradictory statement, but on reflection it makes sense, contains its own resolution to truth
parody
usually comic imitation of another work
pastiche
a literary work composed in the style of a well-known author
persona
the identity or character assumed by the author in a work of literature
personification
where human beings are attributed to an inanimate object
plot
events of a narrative in the order the author has chosen to present them
point of view
the angle through which the narrative is seen or told