354 terms

World History all chapters

an area found at the mouth of a river
rocky stretches marked by swift currents and rapids
egyptian pharaoh that united Egypt
Egyptian ruler. thought of as a god in human form
a state ruled by religious figures
a highly structured organization managed by officials
tall, thin pillars with pyramid shaped tops
the process of preparing a body for the after life
the Egyptian writing system
a plant that was used to make early forms of what we now call paper
rosetta stone
3 passages of identical meaning written in 3 different laguages, hieroglyphic, demotic, and ancient greek
the ruler who led the Kushites north into Egypt
a place where the Egyptians buried the dead
the Egyptian goddess of nature and the protector of women
the body of a "god in human form"or simply a pharaoh's body
the Egyptian sun god. the most important of all Egytian gods.
a very important job. you could gain high status very quickly be coming this.
peasant farmers
made up 90% of the Egytian population.
Aryan writing
a state of perfect peace. ultimate goal in Buddhism
Chinese philosophy that stated all people are born evil
silk road
the trade route that went from Rome all the way to China
the first pre-planned city
being born again
mandate of heaven
if you had this then you were destined to rule
eightfold path
a series of steps that buddhists believe lead to enlightenment
means enlightened one
believed in education for everyone, including people that couldn't afford to pay for an education
caste system
the Aryn class system. you could not move up or down a social class while alive
Lui Bang
the first emperer of the Han Dynasty
a branch of government developed by the chinese for the purpose of secretly making sure that government officials in different branches were doing what they were supposed to at all times.
Zhou dynasty
introduced the concept of having a "mandate of heaven"
Han dynasty
discarded legalism and adopted confucionism
the longest poem in any written language that has ever been discovered
city state
greek foot soldiers.if you were a Spartan boy, at age 20 you automatically became one of these.
state slaves
great pride
a form of government ruled by the people
He allowed all men in Athens to take part in the general assembly and serve on juries that heard trials. Also outlawed dept slavery and tried to reduce povery by encouraging trade.
someone who seizes power by force
took over Athens after Peisistratus died
direct democracy
a system in which all people vote directly on an issue.
served as the chief of state in Athens
a tight rectange formation in which soldiers held long spears out in front of a wall of shields
skilled politician and gifted public speaker in Athens
the first of the great Athenian philosophers
one of Socrates's students. left behind many writings that record his ideas
Unlike the other two great philosophers, this one was mostly conserned with nature.
clear and ordered thinking
the process of making inferences
the author of the probably most famous epic poems of all time
lyric poetry
A kind of poem that does not tell a story but instead deals with emotions and desires
the first major writer of history in Greece
the second major historian. lived in Athens
Alexander the Great
the son of Philip II
means "Greek-like"
formulated many of the ideas about geomety that we still learn about today.
best known for calculating the size of the Earth.
one of the ancient world's greatest inventors
Elected officials governed the state.
Roman common people.
If you did not want a law to be passed, then you would do this to prevent the law from being passed.
The central square in Rome.
Political structure.
A body of 300 members who advised elected officials, controlled public finances, and handled foreign relations.
Chief executives and commanders of the army.
An office that gave its holder nearly unlimited power but could only be held for six months.
Rich people in Rome.
Gracchi Brothers
The first two officials that noticed the growing tension in Rome and try to resolve it.
Gaius Marius
Eliminated all property restrictions that had been previously requiered to be able to join the army, in an effort to increase recruitment into the army.
Julius Caesar
Added alot of territory to the Roman republic.
Rule of three.
Octavian's name given to him by the Senate as a religious honor.
Pax Romana
Roman peace.
small bands of nomadic people
the last prophet
Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina
Muslim faith
the followers of Islam
the Islamic holy book
Five Pillars of islam
the five basic acts of worship that are central to Islam
the name of the building where Muslims worship
struggle for faith
Abu Bakr
one of Muhammad's closest companions
the area ruled by the caliph
means "way of the prophet"
means "Party of Ali
a third, mystical branch of Islam
Harun al-Rashid
the most prominent Abbasid caliph
an instrument for finding the positions and movements of the stars and planets
Ibn Rushd
wrote comentaries on aristotle
Ibn Sina
a Persian doctor. most famous medical scholar of his time.
Ibn Khaldun
an early Muslim Historian
Islamic writing system
tall towers from which the faithful are called to prayer
Omar Khayyam
wrote poems pondering life after death, God, and other serious topics.
Fertile Crescent
The region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf.
The area between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.
a pyramid-shaped structure that rose to the sky
a political unit within its own government
the worship of many gods
a series of rulers from one family
Sumerian writing
Sargon the first
created a permanent army
united all of Mesopotamia
several tribes who spoke related languages
arid grasslands
Nebuchadnezzar II
built the hanging gardens of babalon
the religion of the Hebrews
the sacred text of Judaism
The man the Jews think is responsible for the creation of their religion.
solemn promise
ancestral "fathers"
a leader that rose from the slaves
the journey in which Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt.
the scattering of the Jews outside of Judah
the belief in one god
Cyrus the Great
defeated the Median army and united the Persians and the Medes under his rule
Darius I
created a permanent army called the "Ten Thousand Immortals"
governed a region in the emperor's name
the son of Darius I
founded Zoroastrianism
the belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces, good and evil
A society's knoledge, art, beliefs, customs, and values.
Objects that people in the past made or used.
Mary Leakey
Found skull fragmenst in East Africa that were more than 1.75 million years old.
An early humanlike being.
Donald Johanson
Found a partial Australopithecine skeleton.
Louis Leakey
Found a Homo habilis fossil.
Paleolithic era
The first part of the stone age. The old stone age.
People that move place to place as they follow migrating animal herds.
What people were before the invention of farming.
The belief that all living things in nature have a spirit.
Neolithic Era
The "New Stone Age."
Neolithic Revolution
Another name for the shift from hunter-gathering to farming.
The selective growing or breeding of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans.
People who ranged over wide areas and kept herds of livestock on which they depended for food and other items.
Huge stones
Bronze Age
The time when metal tools developed.
An excess of food.
division of labor
The economic arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job.
traditional economy
An economy in which economic decisions are based on custom, tradition, or ritual.
A complex and organized society.
Skilled crafts-people.
cultural diffusion
The spread of ideas, beliefs, customs, and technology from one culture to another.
planning a course across the sea
long Icelandic stories about great heroes and events
Leif Eriksson
Viking leader that reached North America
a military servant who received land in exchange for his service in the King's army
property given to a vassal in exchange for his loyalty
A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land
fuedal system
The exchange of land from one lord to the other in exchange from work (by Knights)
obligated loyalty or faithfulness
manorial system
Economic system where wealth is based on land rather than money; barter system; trade was not encouraged
workers who were legally tied to the manor on which they worked
Alfred the Great
stopped Vikings and unified Anglo-Saxon kingdom to put up a united front against the Vikings; only English king with the title "Great"
William the Conquerer
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
Domesday Book
the first census and a record of property of English people for the purpose of taxation.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him.
Magna Carta
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights.
the governing body that still makes england's laws today.
Hugh Capet
a minor noble that was elected to serve as the king of France in 987; descenddants became known as the Capetian kings.
Otto the Great
the duke of Saxony.
Christian kingdoms in North Africa who drove muslims from Iberian Peninsula.
a person's level of devotion to his or her religion.
papal term in office.
Pope Gregory VII
Roman Catholic pope that introduced excommunication to Christianity.
Henry IV
King of Germany and a Holy Roman Emperor; excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII.
no longer being allowed to be a member of the Roman Catholic Church or the Orthodox Church.
first Holy Roman Emperor in 200 years.
papal states
areas ruled by the pope.
officials hired by Charlemagne to rule parts of his empire.
a sustained period of renewed interest and remarkable developments in art, literature, science, and learning.
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
a worldly view of things instead of a spiritual view
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote the book "The Prince". was a political philosopher and statesman whose experiences with violent politics of the time influenced his opinion of how governments should rule.
Lorenzo de Medici
A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts and helping the growth of the Renaissance in Italy
Leonardo da Vinci
Known by most people as a talented painter. he was also a writer, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, musician, and a philosopher. contrary to what alot of people think, his passion was not art, but inventing things that could be used in warfare. he also invented the first machine gun.
Michelangelo Buonarroti
one of the most accomplished sculptors of the Italian Renaissance.
a renowned painter and accomplished architect.
Johanes Gutenberg
cast the letters of the alphabet onto metal plates and locked those plates into a wooden press.
Desiderius Erasmus
the most well known Christian Humanist
Sir Thomas More
wrote the Humanist novel "Utopia". the book criticisizes the English government and society, and contains a vision of a perfect, but nonexistent, society based on reason.
William Shakespeare
believed to be the greatest English playwright.
Christine de Pisan
wrote important works focusing on the role women played in society.
Albrecht Dürer
German artist who visited Italy in the late 1400s, learning techniques of realism and perspective, influencing later German Renaissance artists
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who focused on landscapes and everyday life
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a soul's time in purgatory.
Martin Luther
wrote The Ninety-five Theses, which included the demand to stop the sale of indulgences, and brought to the attention of people how the money from the indulgences was being spent, as well as showed how church officials had been abusing their authorative position in society.
a system of government that was ruled by a god/a group of gods or a religious leader.
John Calvin
the most important Protestant reformer. supported Martin Luther
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Henry VIII
became king of England at age 17. nicknamed "Defender of the Faith"
declaired invalid based on church laws
Elizabeth I
a Protestant queen of England. split England from Rome.
The Roman Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation
the most influential of the new religious orders. also called the "Society of Jesus"
Ignatius of Loyola
a Basque nobleman and former soldier that founded the Jesuits
Council of Trent
created by Pope Paul III because of he recognized the need to redefine the doctrines of the Catholic faith
Charles Borromeo
an archbishop of Milan from 1560 to 1584. took decisive steps to implement the reforms ordered by the council, such as building a new school for the education of priests.
Francis of Sales
worked to regain the district of Savoy, which had largely turned to Calvinism
Teresa of Avila
the most famous female spiritual leader during the Renaissance.
absolute monarchy
a monarchy that is not limited or restrained by laws or a constitution.
divine right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from God
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Peace of Augsburg
a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Phillip II
King of Spain, the New World, and the Netherlands. He was sent to the Spanish Armada.
El Greco
one of the most prominent painters in Spain.
Diego Velázquez
painted people from all social classes with great dignity.
Miguel de Cervantes
one of the writers of the Spanish golden age
Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz
a mexican nun that wrote poetry, prose, and plays. was criticized by church officials for her belief that women had a right to education
Spanish Armada
the Spanish Navy. consisted of about 130 ships and 20,000 soldiers/sailors.
a French Calvinist Protestant
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
slaugher of huguenots in paris as ordered by Catholic Queen of France
Henry IV
was protestant but did not wish to anger catholics. Said "Paris is well worth a mass"
Edict of Nantes
This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots
Louis XIII
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII's most trusted adviser
Louis XIV
best example of an absolute monarch
War of the Spanish Succession
a war fought over who would rule after Louis XIV died without an heir to the title of king.
Treaty of Utrecht
said that France and Spain would never be ruled by the same monarch.
a group of strict Calvinists
Charles I
placed limits on the powers of a monarch
A pro-monarchy group that formed in parliment
Oliver Cromwell
the leader of the Roundhead forces and a member of parlaiment
a republican government based on the common good of all the people
Parliament voted to bring back the monarchy
Charles II
the first king after Parliament broght back the monarch
William and Mary
James II's daughter and her husband. became King and Queen of England after James II
Glorious Revolution
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
constitutional monarchy
a monarchy that is limited by law
russian name for ruler
land owners
Ivan IV
First Czar of Russia. During good Era: made many reforms, Created a council that included members from all classes, Defeated Mongols and expanded borders. During bad Era: Paranoid. had strict policies so he lost many of his followers. Killed his only heir and launched Russia into a time of trouble.
Peter the Great
tried to transform Russia into a modern state
an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western—especially European or American—countries.
Catherine the Great
added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Thirty Years' War
A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Treat of Westphalia
treaty that eneded the thirty years war
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Frederick the Great
king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786
geocentric theory
a theory stating that the entire universe revolves around the Earth
Scientific Revolution
the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
scientific method
a set of techniques for acquiring new knowledge about the natural world based on observable, measurable evidence.
René Descartes
wrote that the only true way to gain scientific knowledge is through experimentation
Nocolaus Copernicus
developed the heliocentric theory
heliocentric theory
a theory stating that the enitre universe revolves around our sun
Galileo Galilei
perfected the telescope and used it to study the stars
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
the Age of Reason
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
social contract
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
John Locke
believed that people were naturally happy, tolerant, and reasonable
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
believed that people were basically born good
Baron de Montesquieu
believed that the best form of government used separation of powers
French philosophers
wrote satire that made fun of the government and the church
enlightened despots
monarchs that developed a system of government in which they ruled according to Enlightenment ideas.
Stamp Act
required colonists to pay a tax for an official stamp on all newspapers , legal papers,
Thomas Jefferson
wrote the draft of the declaration.
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Treaty of Paris
the document signed by the British stating that they formally recognized the independence of the United States
James Madison
one of the major input givers for the United States Consitution
federal system
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
Old Order
the political and social system in place in France before the Revolution
Louis XVI
King of France from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution. He was executed by guillotine.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
First Estate
The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
Second Estate
The second class of French society made up of the noblility
Third Estate
Peasants, artisans etc. Every one not in the First or Second Estate.
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
sans culottes
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
a revolution against a government that was established by a revolution
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed by guillotine
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. (p. 591)
Admiral Horatio Nelson
British admiral; he defeated Napoleon's navy in Egypt and again at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
coup d'etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
a sense of identity and unity as a people
Czar Alexander I
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
Hundred Days
a brief period of renewed glory for Napoleon and of problems for his enemies
Duke of Wellington
led the British troops in the Battle of Waterloo
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
French foreign minister; infamous because of his requested bribe during the XYZ affair, but instrumental in settling the details of the Louisiana Purchase
a payment for damage or loss
strongly opposed to change; conservative
drafting of civilians to serve in the army
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
planned economies
An economic system directed by government agencies.
Allied powers
World War I alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.
Gavrilo Princip
Assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28th, 1914
a territory surrendered by Turkey or Germany after World War I and put under the tutelage of some other European power until they ar able to stand by themselves
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property
War Guilt Clause
stated that Germany was solely responsible for World War I
Erich Von Ludendorf
in charge of all military operations for Germany during WWI
Lawrence of Arabia
British military officer who incited the Arabs in Arabia to revolt against their Turkish lords
considered an act of war during WWI
Central Powers
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Treaty of Versalles
The peace treaty signed by Germany and the Allied powers after WWI. Stated that Germany was responsible for the whole war.
Total War
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
American entry into the war
triggered by German submarines attacking US passenger cruiseliners with thousands of innocent
"Blank Check"
PROMISE of support from GERMANY to AUSTRIA-HUNGRY after Ferdinand's assassination; Austria-Hungary sought reprisals against SERBIA
Trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Western Front
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
War of Attrition
Trench warfare between Germany and France.The goal was to break down the enemy. There was no winner after 3 years of fighting.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
League of Nations
an international peace-keeping organization proposed by Woodrow Wilson and founded in 1920
The Schlieffen Plan
the plan that the Germans would quickly defeat France while Russia mobilized, and then attack Russia
Admiral Holtzendorff
German officer who assured the emperor that "not one american will land on the continent" in an attempt to restart unrestricted submarine warfare
The Black Hand
A Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom. Responsible for the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
Woodrow Wilson
President of the US during WWI. Tried to stay nuetral during the war but eventually joined on the side of the Allied Powers because of the attacks on American passenger cruiseliners by German submarines called "U-boats"
giving in to aggressive demands in order to maintain peace
Winston Churchill
a member of the British Parliament that spoke out against Chamberlain's plans
Axis Powers
The WWII alliance of:
nonaggression pact
an agreement in which each side promises not to attack the other
German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack.
The WWII alliance of:
Great Britain
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German air force, which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Hideki Tojo
Japan's prime minister during WWII that ordered attack on Pearl Harbor
the desire to avoid involvment in the affairs of other nations
Erwin Rommel
German field marshal noted for brilliant generalship in North Africa during WWII
Battle of El Alamein
heavy fighting in North Africa led to British defeat of Italian and German forces. Soon after the Allies were able to take back more land from the Vichy Government, which was the French puppet state ruled by Nazis.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion.
Siege of Leningrad
German forces surrounded this Russian city, cutting off supplies. About one million people died of starvation and cold weather
Battle of Stalingrad
turning point in the war. In 1943, After German troops had been devastated trying to fight Russia's Red Army in the winter, on land where both German and Russian troops had exercised a "scorched-earth" policy, leaving no resources to support the German Army. Russia turned the German army back, but used everyone, civilians, men, women and children fought. Russia lost a lot but beat the Germans.
Douglas MacArthur
led a small number of American soldiers and poorly equipped Filipino troops in a doomed defense.
Bataan Death March
Led by Douglas MacArthur. 600 American troops dead and 10,000 Filipino troops dead.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Battle of Guadalcanal
World War II battle in the Pacific; it represented the first Allied counter-attack against Japanese forces; Allied victory forced Japanese forces to abandon the island
Japanese pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and deliberately crashed into Allied ships.
forced to leave a country
Final Solution
Name given to the German goal of killing all European Jews.
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
concentration camps
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Allied forces invaded France
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day The day that WWII ended in Europe.
Battle of Iwo Jima
lasted 6 weeks, several thousand marines, and more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, this battle is also notable for the famous photograph of US marines lifting the American flag to a standpoint
Battle of Okinawa
Lasted almost 3 months.The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Harry S Truman
Became president of the US when Franklin Roosevelt died. Made the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan.
Japanese emperor that surrendered in response to the two atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan.
V-J Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
Yalta Conference
February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Potsdam Conference
a meeting between the Soviet Union and the Allies to discuss postwar issues in Europe.