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Psych Test #3
Terms in this set (73)
Colored muscle surrounding the pupil; controls the amount of light entering the eye.
Opening in the eye that light passes through.
Focuses light waves on the back of the eye.
Image is focused in front of the fovea.
Image is focused behind the fovea.
Light sensitive lining in the back of the eye; contains photoreceptors.
Area of central focus; many photoreceptors, few ganglion cells.
Detecting physical energy in environment.
The absorption of physical energy by the receptors.
Conversion of physical energy to an electrochemical pattern in the neurons.
Refers to how much stimulation is required before an action potential is generated.
Incoming sensory information is combined and refined even as it is being sent to cortical areas for interpretation.
Change in sensitivity that occurs when a sensory system is either stimulated or not stimulated for a period of time.
A line of research in probability which examines the payoff values of outcomes. The researcher presents a very faint signal, and asks the subject whether or not the signal was present.
The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is detected by a human's photoreceptors.
Light-sensitive; contain chemical that reacts with light waves.
Type of photo-receptor; mostly located outside of the fovea, highly sensitive to light, black/white/grey vision.
Type of photo-receptor; mostly at the fovea, lower sensitivity to light, color vision.
Dark and Light Adaption
In high light situations cones are primarily functioning and rods aren't; in low light situations rods are primarily functioning and cones aren't.
Area of eye where ganglion axons leave the eye; no photoreceptors, thus "blind" in that area.
Three different types of cones, each maximally sensitive to three wavelengths of light.
Opponent Process Theory
We perceive color in paired opposites. Bipolar cells have both excitatory and inhibitory synapses with the three types of cones; paired so that when one color is perceived, the other, opposing color is not.
Fatiguing one or the other of the opponent-process visual cells. If you stare at a particular color long enough, you will fatigue the cones responding to that color.
The lack of one or more type of cone; makes it impossible to distinguish between paired colors.
External ear flaps, auditory canal, and the eardrum.
Three smallest bones in the body; hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
Inner Ear: Cochlea
A snail-shaped, fluid-filled tube that contains the receptors and structures necessary for hearing.
A thin membrane at the base of the cochlea; the stirrup strikes the oval window and causes it to vibrate.
Membrane that "floats" in the middle of the cochlea; contains the hair cells: the receptors that transduce sound waves to action potentials as they bend.
Pitch is determined by area of maximal displacement of basilar membrane; compares hearing pitch to strings on a piano. This theory best describes how we hear higher frequency sounds.
Basilar membrane vibrates at frequency of sound wave. Lower frequency sounds.
Damage to hair cells, auditory nerve, or temporal cortex.
Mechanical failure; in cases of conduction deafness, often hearing aids can help amplify sound waves.
Structure of the tongue.
Cells in nasal cavity that detect odor by responding to molecules that carry smell information.
An area in the nasal cavity that has receptors sensitive to pheromones.
Chemicals released by an organism that acts on other organisms of that species to produce specific behavioral or physiological responses.
Somatosensory System (Touch)
The bodily senses; discriminates touches.
Involved in the location and descriptive qualities of pain.
Involved in the motivational aspects of pain.
Involved in anticipating painful events and worry about pain.
Increases Sensitivity to Pain
Inflammation triggers immune system responses.
Gate Theory of Pain
Information from other sensory receptors and from the brain can block or "close the gate" on incoming pain messages.
Released by the periaqueductal grey in the midbrain block pain information from reaching the cortex.
Movement of joints.
Monitors head movements; involved in experiencing dizziness.
A condition in which one type of sensory stimulation evokes the sensation of another.
Elements that are close together are perceived as belonging to the same object; elements that are farther apart are perceived to belong to different objects.
Elements that physically resemble each other are grouped together; disparate elements are perceived as belonging to different objects.
We tend to fill in gaps in borders, because objects are perceived to be completely enclosed by borders.
Lines tend to be perceived in smooth, continuous patterns, rather than oddly-shaped turns and angles.
Features that move together are grouped together.
Each eye, because it is separated from and angled slightly differently from the other, receives visual information at a different location than the other.
Reflects how much the eyes need to come together (or converge) to focus on object. The greater the convergence, the closer the object.
Closer objects block the objects located behind them.
Parallel lines converge (come together) in the distance.
Closer objects have more texture; objects further away appear smoother.
When viewing objects of approximately the same size, the one creating the larger retinal image is closer.
When viewing objects on a horizontal plane, objects that appear lower on the plane are closer; objects higher on the plane are further away.
The use of shadowing can be a cue to distance.
Objects far in the distance are "fuzzy" and bluer.
Head movement can contribute to depth cues.
Objects retain their shape, size, color and brightness, even if the actual image on the retina is distorted.
The perceptual illusions play on depth cues and constancies.
Biological changes that occur on a 24-hour schedule.
Small, irregular, quite fast waves; associated with focused consciousness.
Larger, rhythmic waves that are clearly obvious in the EEG record; associated with relaxed attention.
Large, slow, saw-toothed waves; associated with daydreaming and fantasy states.
Very large, extremely slow waves of 0.5 - 4 Hz; associated with unconsciousness (deep sleep and coma).
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