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1. Climax

the turning point in the story. Also normally the point of highest tension in the story, but not always.

Give an example of a climax.

When Romeo killed Tilbelt

2. Conflict

the major problem that the main character in a story is dealing with

Give an exapmle of Conflict

In the Necklace by Guy de Maupassant the woman who is unhappy withg her social life is surprised by an invitation to a party. While this event seems to resolve one conflicet in her life, it also introduces another. The most dangerous game, Rainsford is in conflict with Genral Zaroff and with the traps Zarrof sets for him.

Theme -

the life lesson in a story (i.e. Honesty is the best policy).

Give an example of a theme

The Scarlet Ibis might be expressed as Pride love and cruielty are oftern intermingled in human relationships. The poem the Theme for English by Langston Hughes might be expressed as Depiste the fact that the instructor is white and the them writer is black they are a part of each other.

verbal irony -

when someone says the opposite of what they mean (i.e. sarcasm)

dramatic irony -

dramatic irony - when the audience knows something that one of the characters in the story/play does not know (i.e. we know that Juliet is dead when Romeo does not know this)

Give an example of verbal irony

(i.e. sarcasm) In the Great Taos Bank Robber when Toy refers to a litany of notable events the reader knows that he does not really mean the ther events are notable, since at least one, a Great flood, was managed without a river.

Give an example of dramatic irony

we know that Juliet is dead when Romeo does not know this)

situational irony

situational irony - when an event turns out differently than expected (i.e. Penelope's suitors expect to win the contest, but Odysseus kills them)

Give an example of situational irony

i.e. Penelope's suitors expect to win the contest, but Odysseus kills them)


a monologue; when a character speaks alone to himself so that we can see his thoughts
At the beginning of Act 2, Scene 3, Friar Laurence has a long soliloquy. Example Juliet Come, gentle night, come, loving black browned night: Give me my Romeo and when he shall die, Take him and cut him out in little stars and he will make the face of heaven so fine that ll the world will be in love with night and pay no worship to the garish sun.

allusion -

a reference to another famous literary figure, story, historical figure, story, etc. within a work of literature Mayo Angelous title I know Why the Caged Bird Sings is an illusion to the poem Sympathy by Paul Laurence Dunbar.

foreshadow -

to hint at the future outcome of a story
Example In the play Sorry Right Number, the opening camera close-up and the first line of dialogue seem to indicate that the telephone and Biull's health will be important to the drama.

comic relief -

. a humorous scene in a tragedy following a very serious scene
Example In Romeo and Juliet comic relief is provided by the Nurse in Act 2, Scene 5 when she returns to Juliet after learning the wedding plans from Romeo. Although Juliet is anxious to hear of the plans, which the audiance already knows, the nurse deliberatly witholds the information until the end of the scene.

tragic flaw -

an error in judgment or character flaw that leads to the tragic hero's downfall

foil -

when one character is sharply contrasted to another character within the same work of literature to make one of the characters look better
Exaample In Shakespears Romeo and juliet, Mercutio serves a s a foil to Romeo.

Parenthetical citation

- know what it is and what information typically goes into it for most works

works cited page -

know that it is like a bibliography and that the works need to be listed in alphabetical order

blank verse

- unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter Shakesphe's plays are wiritten in blank verse. But Soft! What light thorugh younder window breaks? It is the East, and Juliet is the sun.


copy word for word the orignal text. Use quotation marks to signal the beginning and end of the quotation.


restate in your own words the main ideas and supporting details of the passage.

characteristics of an epic hero

...a larger than life figure usually male, who embodies the ideals of a nation or race. Epic heroes take part in a long dangerous advertures and accomplish great deeds that require courage and superhuman strength.

characteristics of an epic poem (p. 890)

long narrative poem that tells about the advertrues of a hero who relflects the ideals and values of a nation or race. Based on legends that contain a kernel of truth, they are not history but works of the imaginaton. An epic portrays the past, but it is an imaginary past, a time supposedly better thatn the time in which the epic was created. Still the values and beliefs that come through are heroic.

characteristics of tragic hero (p. 986)

... tragic hero is usually someone who is nobly born and who may have great influence on his or her society. The character also has one or more fatal character flaws a weakness or serious error in judgment that leads to his or her downfall.

definition of a tragedy

a drama that ends in catastrophe, most often death, for the main character and oftern for several other important characters as well.

characteristics of a tragedy

...In Shakesparean tragedy the main character, or tragic hero is usually someone who is nobly born and who may have great influence on his or her society. The character also has one or more fatal character flaws a weakness or serious error in judgment that leads to his or her downfall. Although the evnets in a tragedy are often set in motion by an action of the tragic hero, fate may also seem ot play a role in the course that the events take. .


unit m5, (n.) a person who takes part in a crime

use accomplice in a sentence

...George was an accomplice with Robert in an armed robbery of the bank.


..., to destroy completely

use in a sentence annihilate,

...The lakers annihilated the Celtics last night.


..., Not able to be corrected; beyond control

use incorrigible n sentence

...Criminals deemed incorriglibe can expect to receive maximum sentences for their offenses.


..., to scold; find fault with; a rebuke

use reprimand in sentence

In Les Misarables Jean reprimanded her daughter.


..., a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change

use catalyst in a sentence

...Enzymes are catalysts that aid in the digestion of food.


to make up for


..., believable


..., (adj) poor, in a state of poverty; depleted

, incessant

..., never stopping, going on all the time


..., occurring or published after death

posthumous SENTENCE

...Many artists and writers have been ignored during life only to receive posthumous fame.


..At one time or another everyone has done something he or she needs to atone for.

, incessant, SENTENCE

The loud and incessant chatter of the people at the next table made it hard for us to hear each other. ...

, impoverished, SENTENCE

...After WW2 improvishered European countries received US aide under the Marshall plan.


to absorb fully or make one's own; to adopt as one's own; to adapt fully
A well read person assimilates knowledge of wide ranged subjects.


..., (n) a long, angry speech, usually very critical
The dictators tyraid against his opponents lasted four hours.


..., to flood, overflow; to overwhelm by numbers or size
Tory and torrential rains inundated the seside community.


..., a large city; the chief city of an area
Archeology have learned about the Myons from the ruins of the metroplois.


8, (adj.) lacking in seriousness; disrespectful, saucy Parents are often upset by the teens flippant response.


..., (v) to lessen, diminish During cold winter weeks the firewood dwindled until no logs were left.


..., ridiculous, senseless The theory that the stonehinge was contructed by aliens was uterly preposterous.

, rejuvenate,

..., to make young again; to make like new
A few minutes of conversation with my friend helped rejuvenate my fallen spirits.


..., meager, scant; scattered
Unlike its neighbors, the area has a sparse population.


..., "farewell;" a farewell As my friends boarded the airline I shouted ADieu have a safe trip.


Composed of different kinds, diverse
Most colleges seek a heterogeneous student body.


..., work that is hard and tiresome
Trade unions lobby to relieve drudgery of factory workers.


..., offensive, disagreeable, distasteful
Despite their repugnant lack of cleaniness, pigs are endeared by many.


. to write or engrave; to enter a name on a list
He asked for the locket to be inscribed with her name.


..., to pretend
Children feign illness to avoid school at time.s


10, thoroughly skilled; an expert
Charles is an adept musician.


..., incorrect, containing mistakes
CJ is sometimes portrays an erroneous first impression.


..., drooping; without energy, sluggish
CJ feels lanquid for the rest of the day after a big lunch.


..., worthy of scorn, contemptible
Whatever the provocatoin there is no reason for such despicable acts.


..., forward; undesirably prominent; thrust out
I don't blame you for being put off by his obrrusive attempt to dominate the conversation.

Conflicts,of the following.
Romeo and Juliet


Conflicts, of each of the following.
The Odyssey

...Odysesses could not get back home to his wife and son ears.

Themes of the following.
Romeo and Juliet

Fate, Communication and its importance, family ties, friendship, loyalty impulsive behaviior and love

themes, of each of the following.
The Odyssey

...One theme of the Odysey concerns what it means to be a hero. Experiences about pride, power, self control and the improatnce of home and family and about responsiblity to others. 939

lessons, of each of the following.
Romeo and Juliet


Lessons, of each of the following.
The Odyssey


General plots or main points of each of the following.
Romeo and Juliet


General plots or main points of each of the following.
The Odyssey


Who was Zeus

- king of the gods

Hestia was

- goddess of hearth/fireplace

Pandora -

opened a box that brought misery

Poseidon -

god of sea

Eris -

goddess of Chaos

Cronus -

swallowed his kids

Helen -

cause of the Trojan war

aris -

ran off with Helen

Hera -

Zeus's wife/sister

Prometheus -

an eagle ate his liver, he created humans

Persephone -

captured by Hades which caused seasons to change

what is a Greek myth

...a traditional story usuallly concerning some superhuman being or unlikely event that was once believed to be true. Greek mythology forms the background for the Odyssey.

why were myths were written

- to explain things they did not understand in the world


-god of underworld


- blacksmith god


goddess of wisdom

upid/Psyche -

helper god of love for aphroditie


- female hero


- god of music


- goddess of wild things

Jason (Golden Fleece story) -

captured fleece to get his throne back

Aphrodite -

goddess of beauty/love

Hercules -

demi-god, had to complete 12 tasks


- messenger god


he killed Medusa


god of war


fought Minotaur

Epimetheus -

created animals

Pegasus -

flying horse

Hyacinthus, Adonis, Narcissus -

Narcissus died from being obsessed with his reflection


- between 1400s and 1600s, a cultural movement (a rebirth of ideas), when Shakespeare wrote plays

William Shakespeare -

author of Romeo and Juliet; his acting company was Lord Chamberlain's men

Queen Elizabeth I -

peaceful queen, daughter of Henry VIII, supported Shakespeare financially

Henry VIII -

caused unrest as king because he broke with the Catholic church; wanted a son but couldn't get one

Homer -

the author of the Odyssey

Lord Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

- acting company

The Globe Theater -

where Shakespeare performed his plays, round theater

Time periods that each of the works take place in and when they were written-

around 1200 BC is when Odyssey was written
Shakespere between 1400 and 1600


..., the mark (') used to indicate the omission of one or more letters from a printed word


..., a punctuation mark (';') used to connect independent clauses


..., a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations


..., a punctuation mark (:) used after a word introducing a series or an example or an explanation (or after the salutation of a business letter)

know how to properly write out a title


My lips two blushing pilgrims ready an example of

blank verse

whereto I have invited many a guest is an example of

blank verse

The conversation between Perter and the musicians at the end of Act Four whis is a humerous interchange followed after the grief filled scene i which juliet's body is discovered is

comic relief

Tis but the pale reflex of Cynthis's brow is an example of



a punctuation mark (,) used to indicate the separation of elements within the grammatical structure of a sentence

exclamation point

a punctuation mark (!) used after an exclamation

Athena, Hera and Aphrodite asked a mortal, Paris to decide which of them was the most beautiful. Paris chose Aphrodite and was rewarded by her with Helen, wife of the Greek king Menelaus. This is an examle of a


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