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Chapters 7 and 8 Ed Psych
Terms in this set (70)
a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
The tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to produce a similar response.
The organism responds to certain stimuli but not others.
The weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
Reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasingly anxiety-producing
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Consequences are contingent on the organism's behavior
increases the probability that a behavior will occur.
decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.
Reinforce after a set number of responses
Reinforce after an average but unpredictable number of responses
Reinforce appropriate response after a fixed amount of time
Reinforce appropriate response after a variable amount of time
states that a high-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability activity
Added stimuli that are given just before the likelihood that the behavior will occur. Use to initiate behavior. Once desired behavior is consistent, remove prompts.
Involves teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior. First, reward any response.
Next, reward responses that resemble the desired behavior. Finally, reward only target behavior.
Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors
Use differential reinforcement Terminate reinforcement (extinction)
Remove desirable stimuli Present aversive stimuli (punishment)
The belief that one can master a situation an produce positive outcomes.
occurs when a person observes and imitates someone else's behavior.
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Social, cognitive, and behavioral factors play important roles in learning.
Students must attend to what a model is doing or saying.
Students must be able to reproduce the model's behavior.
Students must code information and keep it in memory so that they can retrieve it.
Students must be motivated to imitate the modeled behavior.
A relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills that comes about through experience
The view that behavior should be explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes
thoughts, feelings, and motives that cannot be observed by others
Learning that two events are connected (associated)
a form of learning in which the consequence of behavior produce changes in the probability that a behavior will occur
a consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur
A consequence that descreases the probability that a behavior will occur
reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is removed
applied behavior analysis
Application of the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior
schedules of reinforcement
Partial reinforcement timetables that determine when a response will be reinforced
putting reinforcement contingencies into writing
removing an individual from positive reinforcement
cognitive behavior techniques aimed at teaching individuals to modify their own behavior
The self generation and self monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to reach a goal
Reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
an acquired response that is under the control of (conditional on the occurrence of) a stimulus
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
information processing approach
Emphasizes that children manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Is analogous to computers.
Developmental Changes—Increases in capacity and speed of information processing Contributions of biology and experience
Brain Structure Neural: synaptic pruning and myelination
getting information into memory
processing information with little effort
discovering new processing procedures
represented by metacognition, "knowing about knowing"
is the focusing of mental processes Selective attention Divided attention Sustained attention Executive attention
Developmental Changes in Attention
Increase in selective attention Increase in attention span Increase in cognitive control of attention; less impulsivity Increase in attention to relevant stimuli
cognition about cognition, or "knowing about knowing"
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
concentrating on more than one activity at the same time
The ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time.
involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances
is the retention of information over time.
Getting informationin to memory
Retaining information over time
Taking information out of storage
Consistent repetition of information over time
The extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding
levels of processing theory
The explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long-term memory (more "deeply" processed) will be remembered better.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Memory that holds information from the world in its original form for only an instant
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
the number of correct items that people can immediately recall from a sequence of items
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Unlimited capacity over a long period of time
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
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