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Terms in this set (43)
Nuermberger & Gershon
Carried out a meta-analysis and found that the concordance rate for clinical depression was consistently higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins. Across the seven studies reviewed, the average concordance rate for MZ twins was 65%, whereas for DZ twins it was 14%.
Diathesis Stress Model
This theory argues that one must have a genetic predisposition toward a disorder - and then when exposed to environmental stressors, the genes may express the abnormal behaviour.
Because there is a correlation between low levels of serotonin and depression, it was believed that low levels of serotonin leads to depression - but this theory is challenged today.
Beck's cognitive triad
Depressed patients have negative views of themselves, the world and the future.
Beck's therapy that attempts to change irrational thinking patterns and cognitive biases.
Nolen-Hoeksema on origins of depression
Rumination is when we think a lot about how we feel and try to understand the reasons we feel the way we do. Nolen-Hoeksema (2000) found that both men and women who ruminate more following the loss of loved ones or when feeling sad are more likely to become depressed and to suffer longer and more severe depression than those who ruminate less.
Brown & Harris on depression
Found that people who have fewer protective factors and more risk factors were more likely to develop depression. This was particularly found in women.
Kirmayer's explanatory models
Cultures create socially acceptable sets of symptoms for mental distress. Since cultures are continually evolving, especially in the era of globalization, these explanatory models may change. This is why symptoms and disorders may not be universal in nature.
Bolton on depression
Used local healers in Rwanda to help diagnosis depression after the genocide. Found that depression when diagnosed using a standardized Western test rates were 70%; when using the test designed by the local people, the amount dropped to 30%.
Jahoda on normality
Jahoda came up with a list of criteria for good mental health. The list is considered overly optimistic, difficult to measure and culturally biased.
Conceptual definitions of abnormality
This can be a statistical deviation from the norm, deviation from social or cultural norm, or deviation from the concept of ideal mental health.
Practical definitions of abnormality
Practical definitions are based on what can be observed, rather than variance from a norm. Often these definitions are based on one's able to "function" in society.
Validity of diagnosis
Validity means that the diagnosis leads to a successful plan of treatment.
Reliability of diagnosis
Reliability means that more than one doctor diagnoses the patient with the same disorder.
Robins & Guze on validity of diagnosis
Argued that triangulation is necessary for validity of diagnosis.
Lipton & Simon on reliability of diagnosis
Conducted various assessment procedure to arrive at a diagnosis for 131 patients. This diagnosis was then compared with the original diagnosis. Of the original 89 diagnoses of schizophrenia, only 16 received the same diagnosis on re-evaluation. Fifty were diagnosed with a mood disorder, even though only 15 had been diagnosed as such.
Kleinmann on diagnosis
Collectivistic cultures may be more prone to somaticization of depression - e.g. Chinese with back pain.
When a doctor sees what he (or she) is looking for. Also called "Sick-role bias" which is when a doctor expects that someone coming in for treatment is actually sick.
Langer & Abelson on labeling
Psychiatrists watched a video of a younger man talking to an older man with the sound removed. Half the therapists were told that the younger man was a patient; the other half, that he was a job applicant. After viewing the video, participants responded to a series of questions about the interviewee. If the viewers were told that he was a job applicant, he was described as attractive and confident; if they were told that he was a patient, he was described as defensive, aggressive and/or frightened
Affective symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder
sadness, apathy, irritability
Behavioural symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder
change in activities, social withdrawal
Cognitive symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder
pessimism, poor self-worth
Somatic symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder
insomnia, dysmenorrhea, lack of hunger/overeating
Affective symptoms of PTSD
irritability, fear/startle responses, restricted range of affect
Behavioural symptoms of PTSD
social withdrawal, tantrums
Cognitive symptoms of PTSD
hypervigilance, sense of foreshortened future; intrusive memories, difficulty concentrating
neuropeptide Y and PTSD
Studies show that combat veterans with lower levels of Neuropeptide Y are more likely to show signs of PTSD. Studies by Morgan and by Yehuda.
Catastrophizing (Cockram) and PTSD
Cockram argues that maladaptive schemas that start in youth which lead to negative beliefs about oneself lead to PTSD. Research shows that cognitive restructuring improves PTSD symptoms in veterans.
Locus of control and PTSD
Individuals with an external locus of control - where they see their tragedy as beyond their control - are less likely to develop PTSD. In people with an internal locus of control, the development of PTSD is associated with a tendency to take personal responsibility for failures and to cope with stress by focusing on the emotion, rather than the problem
Social Identity Theory and PTSD
SIT may prevent or cause PTSD. Stein (2005) found that veterans from the Vietnam War who volunteer from the army and were proud to fight for their country have a lower incidence of PTSD than those individuals who were drafted and did not accept their identity as a soldier.
Vulnerability models for PTSD
Veterans with fewer protective factors were at higher risk of PTSD. Also, PTSD is found in communities with low socioeconomic status, war, domestic violence or poverty.
There is a bias to publish only studies that have a positive result. For example, in research on the effectiveness of SSRIs like Prozac. 94% of studies actually published were positive outcomes; when published and unpublished studies were included for analysis, the percentage of positive outcomes was 51%. (New England Journal of Medicine study)
Out patient care
A positive outcome of biomedical treatments. Allows the patient to care for himself at home without the need for hospitalization.
Elkin et al on the effectiveness of drug treatments
Found that there was no difference in the effectiveness of CBT and drug treatment. 50% improved, while 29% improved with only a placebo.
The percentage of cases in which the symptoms return after treatment has been discontinued. This is a criticism of drug treatments.
Toseland & Siporin on the effectiveness of group therapy
Reviewed 74 studies comparing individual and group treatment. Group treatment was found to be as effective as individual treatment in 75 per cent of these studies, and more effective in the remaining 25 per cent. In no case was individual treatment found to be more effective than group treatment
Riggs on combining drugs and CBT
Found that those treated with both drugs and CBT - or with a placebo and CBT improved the most in a sample of adolescents with depression.
Rush on relapse rates
Suggests that there is a higher relapse rate for those treated by drugs because CBT patients learn the skills to cope with depression that the patients given drugs alone do not.
A combination of techniques from different therapeutic systems. The principle that guides modern therapists is "what works." The therapy should be tailored to the patient, not the other way around.
Li Repac on diagnosis
Found that Chinese and Caucasion psychiatrists had cultural biases when diagnosing each other's culture.
Gove & Fain on labeling
Gove & Fain (1973) carried out extensive interviews with 429 former mental patients. The vast majority stated that diagnosis had led to an improvement in their social relationships. They had positive evaluations of their hospital experiences and they felt that they were better able to deal with their problems. A small minority of the former patients (19) reported exclusively negative outcomes. However, there is no way to tell whether these negative outcomes were the result of diagnostic labels.
Aetiology Treatment fallacy
Just because a treatment may be successful does not mean that the aetiology on which the treatment is based is the actual cause of the disorder
A symptom that is the result of treatment. For example, a side effect of apathy or depression when using anti-anxiety drugs; false memories as a result of psychotherapy.
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