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made up of 4 nucleotides


monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

nucleic acid

Macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

4 types of nucleotides

Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

what type of bond holds the 2 sides of a dna molecule together?

hydrogen bonds

why is dna important

DNA replication is important because it ensures that the new cell will have the exact same genetic information as the original.

how does dna replicate?

DNA molecule unwinds and each strand is a template for complementary base pairing; each daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand therefore DNA replication is semiconservative



what are the steps involved in protein synthesis?

Transcription transferal Translation

how many nucleotides compose a codon?


how many codons are needed to code for 1 amino acid?

triplet base pair

what are proteins composed of?

Amino acids

what is transcription?

Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides

where does transcription happen


what is replication

When DNA reproduces itself

where does replication happen


what enzymes are involved in replication

helicase and polymerase

what is translation

The process of converting information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins

where does translation happen


what are differences between DNA and RNA

sugar in RNA is ribose not deoxyribose
RNA is single stranded, DNA is double stranded
RNA has uracil instead of thymine

how are dna and rna similar

They both are a long chain of nucleotides


the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

asexual reproduction

process by which a single parent reproduces by itself

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

cell plate

A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.


small barrel shaped pairs that make spindle fibers


round things that hold chromasomes together


regions of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain structures called centrioles


yknow how you got like these chromasome things well yea they like split in half an instead of an x you got like two ls yo


the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins

cleavage furrow

The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.

crossing over

process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis


Division of the cytoplasm during cell division

daughter cells

new cells produced by cell division

daughter chromosomes

Sister chromatids that are separated by mitosis

daughter nuclei

the new nuclei produced when when a cell reproduces asexually


(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

diploid #

(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number


first phase of interphase; cell grows in size


The final period of interphase during which the cell prepares for mitosis.


a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Genetic recombination

the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents


(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

haploid #

(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis

independent assortment

the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes


period of the cell cycle between cell divisions


the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)


a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape


the second stage of mitosis


the first stage of mitosis


DNA replication

sex cell

a spermatozoon or an ovum, An egg or sperm cell; a sex cell carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells.

sexual reproduction

reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete

sister chromatid

one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides

somatic cells

body cells


(biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division

spindle fiber

one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes


The pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis


The cytoplasm seperates. Two new cells contain sames number of chromosomes as the original cell.


Structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis


(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA

semi-conservative DNA replication

when the parent strand is physically divided and used in two daughter strands

How many chromosomes do humans have


gel electrophoresis

procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

what bases are purines

adenine and guanine

what bases are pyrimidines

1. Cytosine 2. Uracil (only in RNA) 3. Thymidine

DNA replication

The process of making a copy of DNA

When does DNA replication take place

during interphase of the cell cycle

why is DNA replication important

Before a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA

what is the charge of a DNA molecule



a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids


bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins

what is the purpose of DNA

to make genetic information


a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid


a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids

difference between DNA and RNA

DNA: deoxyribose sugar, AT, CG, Remains in the nucleus; RNA: ribose sugar,AU, CG, Single-stranded helix, Found in nucleus and cytoplasm

process of gene cloning

1. isolate plasmid from bacterial cell
2. insert desired gene into plasmid (recombinant DNA molecule)
3. plasmid returned to bacterial cell (recombinant bacterium)
4. host cell grown in culture to form clone of cells containing "cloned" gene of interest
5. gene of interest may be used to alter organisms for particular purposes; proteins harvested may be used for specific purposes

PCR process

30-40 cycles of 3 steps:
1. denaturation (heating)
2. annealing: 45 seconds, 54 degrees celsius, forward and reverse primers.
3. extension: 2 minutes 72 degrees, only dNTPs, dna replication


(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms


a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction


a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order


a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside

avery experiment

discovered that the transforming factor was DNA

griffiths experiment

genetic material could be transferred between dead bacteria and living bacteria

Hersey and Chase experiment

Found that DNA was the genetic material by tagging the protein coat of DNA of a bacteriophage with two different isotopes (sulphur and phosphate) and found that the new bacteriophages made only contained the radioactive isotope that tagged the DNA

Watson and Crick experiment

Made physical models of DNA

Why is DNA acidic

it is composed of nucleic acids


(biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA


(especially of vectors) parallel but oppositely directed


Proposed that DNA could transmit disease, not protein & that hereditary material was probably made of DNA, not protein

DNA polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

growing fork

place where DNA is replicated


a purine base found in DNA and RNA


An enzyme that separates DNA strands


a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids

lagging strand

A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.

leading strand

the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction


of an instrument of certain death


enzyme responsible for joining strands of DNA

Okazaki fragments

Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.


Five carbon sugar


a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication

restriction enzymes

Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides


the enzyme that prevents DNA super coiling


nitrogen base in RNA that pairs with adenine--replaces thymine

Mendel's experiment

took two sets of plants, one true-breeding for plants of regular height and the other-true breeding for plants of short or dwarf height,instead of letting the plants grow on there on he deliberately paired as parents one pair from each set, he called the first set he did the first generation. the first generation grew at regular height,no sign at all of a dwarf plant. the next set he did(the second generation) he did the same thing except three fourths were regular but one fourth was a dwarf plant. the traits that seemed to dissapear in the first generation repeated in the second showing a trait pattern.


A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed

example of codominance

blood type


First generation of offspring


Second generation of offspring

polygenic inheritance

combined effect of two or more genes on a single character

law of dominance

this states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

intermediate inheritance

inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes

example of intermediate inheritance

black chcken + white chicken = blue chicken

distinct factors

Factors that appear only once in a list.


a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others, a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait


an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock


an organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent

sex linked gene

gene located on the X or Y chromosome

test cross

the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype

what do punnett squares represent

potential offspring


__Sn + __HF --> __SnF₂ + __H₂


phenotypic ratio of a dihybrid cross

blending hypothesis

The idea that genetic material contributed "mix" together in a way that blue + yellow make green. Predicts that over many generations a freely mating population would give rise to a uniform population of individuals. Fails to explain how some traits reappear after skipping a generation. Disproved by Gregor Mendel.

chromosome theory of inheritance

generalization that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns

co dominance

Situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism


process by which sperm from one flower's pollen fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant


(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes



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