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130 terms

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polymer
made up of 4 nucleotides
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
nucleic acid
Macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
4 types of nucleotides
Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
what type of bond holds the 2 sides of a dna molecule together?
hydrogen bonds
why is dna important
DNA replication is important because it ensures that the new cell will have the exact same genetic information as the original.
how does dna replicate?
DNA molecule unwinds and each strand is a template for complementary base pairing; each daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand therefore DNA replication is semiconservative
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what are the steps involved in protein synthesis?
Transcription transferal Translation
how many nucleotides compose a codon?
3
how many codons are needed to code for 1 amino acid?
triplet base pair
what are proteins composed of?
Amino acids
what is transcription?
Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides
where does transcription happen
nucleus
what is replication
When DNA reproduces itself
where does replication happen
nucleus
what enzymes are involved in replication
helicase and polymerase
what is translation
The process of converting information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins
where does translation happen
ribosomes
what are differences between DNA and RNA
sugar in RNA is ribose not deoxyribose
RNA is single stranded, DNA is double stranded
RNA has uracil instead of thymine
how are dna and rna similar
They both are a long chain of nucleotides
anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
cell plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
centriole
small barrel shaped pairs that make spindle fibers
centromere
round things that hold chromasomes together
centrosomes
regions of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain structures called centrioles
chromatids
yknow how you got like these chromasome things well yea they like split in half an instead of an x you got like two ls yo
chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
cleavage furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
daughter cells
new cells produced by cell division
daughter chromosomes
Sister chromatids that are separated by mitosis
daughter nuclei
the new nuclei produced when when a cell reproduces asexually
diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
diploid #
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
G1
first phase of interphase; cell grows in size
G2
The final period of interphase during which the cell prepares for mitosis.
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Genetic recombination
the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents
haploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
haploid #
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis
independent assortment
the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
karyotype
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
kinetochore
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
metaphase
the second stage of mitosis
prophase
the first stage of mitosis
S
DNA replication
sex cell
a spermatozoon or an ovum, An egg or sperm cell; a sex cell carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells.
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
sister chromatid
one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides
somatic cells
body cells
spindle
(biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division
spindle fiber
one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
synapsis
The pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
telephase
The cytoplasm seperates. Two new cells contain sames number of chromosomes as the original cell.
tetrad
Structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
transformation
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
semi-conservative DNA replication
when the parent strand is physically divided and used in two daughter strands
How many chromosomes do humans have
46
gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
what bases are purines
adenine and guanine
what bases are pyrimidines
1. Cytosine 2. Uracil (only in RNA) 3. Thymidine
DNA replication
The process of making a copy of DNA
When does DNA replication take place
during interphase of the cell cycle
why is DNA replication important
Before a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA
what is the charge of a DNA molecule
Negative
Histone
a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids
nucleosome
bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins
what is the purpose of DNA
to make genetic information
ribose
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
deoxyribose
a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
difference between DNA and RNA
DNA: deoxyribose sugar, AT, CG, Remains in the nucleus; RNA: ribose sugar,AU, CG, Single-stranded helix, Found in nucleus and cytoplasm
process of gene cloning
1. isolate plasmid from bacterial cell
2. insert desired gene into plasmid (recombinant DNA molecule)
3. plasmid returned to bacterial cell (recombinant bacterium)
4. host cell grown in culture to form clone of cells containing "cloned" gene of interest
5. gene of interest may be used to alter organisms for particular purposes; proteins harvested may be used for specific purposes
PCR process
30-40 cycles of 3 steps:
1. denaturation (heating)
2. annealing: 45 seconds, 54 degrees celsius, forward and reverse primers.
3. extension: 2 minutes 72 degrees, only dNTPs, dna replication
cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
nucleotide
a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside
avery experiment
discovered that the transforming factor was DNA
griffiths experiment
genetic material could be transferred between dead bacteria and living bacteria
Hersey and Chase experiment
Found that DNA was the genetic material by tagging the protein coat of DNA of a bacteriophage with two different isotopes (sulphur and phosphate) and found that the new bacteriophages made only contained the radioactive isotope that tagged the DNA
Watson and Crick experiment
Made physical models of DNA
Why is DNA acidic
it is composed of nucleic acids
adenine
(biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA
Anti-Parallel
(especially of vectors) parallel but oppositely directed
Avery
Proposed that DNA could transmit disease, not protein & that hereditary material was probably made of DNA, not protein
DNA polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
growing fork
place where DNA is replicated
guanine
a purine base found in DNA and RNA
helicase
An enzyme that separates DNA strands
histone
a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
leading strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
lethal
of an instrument of certain death
ligase
enzyme responsible for joining strands of DNA
Okazaki fragments
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.
pentose
Five carbon sugar
plasmid
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
restriction enzymes
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
topoisonmerase
the enzyme that prevents DNA super coiling
uricil
nitrogen base in RNA that pairs with adenine--replaces thymine
Mendel's experiment
took two sets of plants, one true-breeding for plants of regular height and the other-true breeding for plants of short or dwarf height,instead of letting the plants grow on there on he deliberately paired as parents one pair from each set, he called the first set he did the first generation. the first generation grew at regular height,no sign at all of a dwarf plant. the next set he did(the second generation) he did the same thing except three fourths were regular but one fourth was a dwarf plant. the traits that seemed to dissapear in the first generation repeated in the second showing a trait pattern.
codominance
A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
example of codominance
blood type
F1
First generation of offspring
F2
Second generation of offspring
polygenic inheritance
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
law of dominance
this states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
intermediate inheritance
inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes
example of intermediate inheritance
black chcken + white chicken = blue chicken
distinct factors
Factors that appear only once in a list.
carrier
a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others, a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait
hybrid
an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock
purebred
an organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
sex linked gene
gene located on the X or Y chromosome
test cross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
what do punnett squares represent
potential offspring
1:2:1
__Sn + __HF --> __SnF₂ + __H₂
9:3:3:1
phenotypic ratio of a dihybrid cross
blending hypothesis
The idea that genetic material contributed "mix" together in a way that blue + yellow make green. Predicts that over many generations a freely mating population would give rise to a uniform population of individuals. Fails to explain how some traits reappear after skipping a generation. Disproved by Gregor Mendel.
chromosome theory of inheritance
generalization that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns
co dominance
Situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
cross-fertilization
process by which sperm from one flower's pollen fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant
haploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
centriole
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