57 terms

Superficial and Deep Back

O: ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes C7-T12
I: acromion process, spine of scapula, and lateral third of the clavicle
Trapezius innervation
spinal acessory n and ventral rami of C3-C4
Trapezius function
extend the head, elevate, retract and upwardly rotate or depress the pectoral girdle
Latissimus Dorsi
O: Spinous processes of T6 and lower, thoracolumbar fascia, illiac crest and lower ribs
I: intertubercular goove of the humerus
Latissimus Dorsi Innervation
Thoracodorsal n
Latissimus Dorsi function
extend, adduct and medially rotate arm
Rhomboid Major and Minor
O: spinous processes C7-T5
I: vertebral border of the scapula
Rhomboid Major and Minor Innervation
dorsal scapular n
Rhomboid Major and minor functions
downwardly rotate and retract scapula
Levator Scapulae
O: superior angle of the scapula
I: upper cervical vertebrae
Levator Scapulae innervation
dorsal scapular n
Levator scapulae function
elevate and downwardly rotate the scapula
Serratus Posterior Superior
just deep the the rhomboids
Serratus posterior inferior innervation
branches of intercostal nn
Serratus posterior superior function
weakly elevate upper ribs
Serratus posterior superior innervation
branches of intercostal nn
Serratus posterior inferior
lies deep to latissimus dorsi
serratus posterior inferior function
weakly depresses ribs
Innervation of all deep back muscles
posterior primary rami
Splenius Capitis and Cervicis
O: inferior half of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C and upper T vertebrae
I: Splenius Capitis inserts in mastiod process and adjacent occipital bone. Cervicis inserts on transverse processes of upper cervical vertabrae
lateral column
intermediate column (only one that extends to the skull)
medial column
Semispinalis capitis, cervicis, and thoracis
originate from upper half of the spine, contralaterally rotate and extend the head
heaviest in the lumber spine, spans 3 segments, originates on mammillary processes and inserts on spinous processes
deep to multifidus, spans 1 or 2 interspaces. Stabilize spine and maintain alignment
superficial fascia
contains platysma m (supplied by facial n CN VII)
investing layer of deep fascia
encircles the neck and encloses SCM and trapezius
prevertebral fascia
surrounds posterior neck and encloses cervical spinal column and its mm. Makes the floor of the suboccipital triangle
pretracheal fascia
surrounds the anterior neck
trachea, esophagus, thyroid gland
carotid sheath
common corotid a
internal jugular v
vagus n
vertebral a
arises from subclavian and acends through C6 and up, passes over posterior arch of the atlas and pierces dura mater to go through foramen magnum
internal carotid arteries
provide blood to the brain along with vertebral artery
origination of CN XI
arises from C1-C5 and ascends through foramen magnum then descends through jugular foramen to supply Trapezius
suboccipital triangle borders
Rectus Capitis Posterior major
Inferior oblique
Superior oblique
suboccipital triangle contents
suboccipital n
Superior Oblique
O: transverse process of atlas
I: skull
Inferior Oblique
O: transverse process of atlas
I: spine of axis
Rectus Capitis Posterior major
O:spine of axis
I: skull
suboccipital n
only has motor fibers
innervates suboccipital mm, rectus capitis posterior minor, and semispinalis capitis
Semispinalis Capitis
forms the roof of the triangle
occipital a
enters lateral to superior oblique
greater occipital n
carries sensory for both itself and suboccipital
innervates semispinalis capitis
inserts at clavicle, sternum, and mastoid process
Functions of SCM
protects major blood vessels in the carotid sheath, flexes cervical spine,produces ipsilateral rotation of the head
posterior cervical triangle
"gateway to the upper limb"
Posterior cervical triangle contents
spinal accessory n divides it into superior (carefree) and inferior (careful) zones
posterior belly of the omohyoid
superficial structures of the posterior cervical triangle
external jugular v, cutaneous nn
cutaneous nn
C2-C3 (climb the tree)
greater auricular n
lesser occipital n - to scalp
transverse cervical n - proceeds anteriorly
C3-C4 (hit the floor)
medial, intermediate and lateral supraclavicular nn
muscles to the floor of the posterior cervical triangle innervated by posterior primary rami
part of semispinalis capitis
muscles to the floor of the posterior cervical triangle innervated by anterior primary rami
levator scapulae (dorsal scapular n and C3-C4)
scalenus anterior, medial and posterior
phrenic n
anterior surface of scalenus anterior
motor to the diaphragm
where does brachial plexus appear in the posterior cervical trangle?
in between scalenus anterior and scalenus medial
Subclavian v
passes anterior to scalenus anterior
drains upper limb
subclavian a
passes behind scalenus anterior
supplies upper limb
suprascapular a
supplies mm on the posterior surface of the scapula
thyrocervical trunk
branches from subclavian a
dorsal scapular and superficial cervical aa combined are called transverse cervical a which divides into superficial and deep branches