38 terms

Honors Biology Unit 3 Flashcards

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Metabolism
All of an organisms chemical reaction
Chemical Reactions
Reactants + Enzymes=Products
Energy
The Capacity to do work
Kinetic Energy
Energy being used, energy of motion
Potential Energy
Energy going to be used, stored energy
The two types of energy
Kinetic and Potential Energy
What type of energy is thermal energy?
Kinetic Energy
Faster molecules= more thermal energy
What type of energy is Chemical energy?
Potential Energy
Eventually, will be broken down into ATP (energy for you) by Mitochondria
Reactants
Form a chemical reaction
Products
Result of a chemical reaction
Mitochondria
Makes ATP (energy) in a cell
ATP
Adenosine trisophate, energy, currency of the cell
Thermodynamics
The study of energy
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Law of conservation of energy:
Energy can not be created or destroyed, only transformed or transferred
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Energy conversions increase the entropy (disorder) of the universe
Chemical Reactions do ______________ or ________________ with energy
Release or Store energy
Exergonic
Releases energy
Endergonic
Stores energy
Sun to plant
Catabolic Reactions
Reactions that break molecules down to produce energy for the cell (output)
Anabolic Reactions
Reactions that consume energy to produce new molecules (input)
Enzymes
Biological catalysts, increase the rate of the reaction without themselves being used, each enzyme has a specific trait
Most Enzymes are...
Proteins or RNA (Ribozymes)
_________+ase
What the enzyme does
Catalysts
Speed something up
What do enzymes lower?
Activation energy for a reaction
Activation energy
Energy required to start a reaction
Lock and Key Model
Amylase
Breaks down starch
The shape of the enzyme determines...
The shape determines its function
How can you change an enzyme's activity?
Temperature, pH, solute concentration
Solute Concentration
How much compound one is putting in a solvent
Cofactors
Bind to the enzyme's active site to help it function, typically a metal like iron, zinc, copper, etc.
Coenzyme
If the molecule that binds is not a metal but an organic compound, typically vitamins
Ex: folic acid
Most enzymes are inactive until..
They are bound by their cofactor or coenzyme
Enzyme Inhibition
There are two types; competitive and non- competitive
Competitive inhibition
Blocks and interferes with active site
Ex: snakebite
Non-competitive inhibition
Changes shape of enzyme so it cannot bind to substrate
Feedback inhibition
series of reactions facillatated by multiple enzymes. The results goes back into the first reaction.
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