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Chapter 7 - Survey Research (Under Construction)
Terms in this set (35)
Surveys & Questionnaires
In survey/questionnaire studies, large groups of individuals have their opinions, attitudes and behaviours assessed via carefully written questions whose responses can be quantified.
Every member of the population has a chance of being sampled.
Probability of selection can be specified.
Includes simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling.
Probability sampling conditions don't apply. Includes convenience sampling and quota sampling.
Grab whoever you can. Likely to generate a non-representative sample.
Self-selected samples are a form of convenience sampling.
Sample designed to mirror population characteristics (ex: the % of females).
Uses convenience sampling to create sample within each quote group (ex: males and females).
Participants elect to participate (as opposed to being sought out by the researcher).
A form of convenience sampling. Likely to generate a large sample size, but representativeness matters more than size.
Sample created in line with the study goals. For example, focusing only on students within the top ten graduate programs in research and then researching the work habits of those successful graduate students.
The two common strategies are Expert Sampling and Snowball Sampling.
Participate recruit others to participate.
Simple Random Sampling
Build a sampling frame containing all population members.
Stratified Random Sampling
Sampling frame divided into groups (based on characteristics.) Random sampling applied to each group.
What do you do if there is no sampling frame?
Cluster sampling - units containing the population members are identified and essentially this creates the sampling frame. The clusters are then randomly sampled but they may not represent the "entire" population.
Units (ex: Schools, Companies, Hospital Divisions) containing the population members are identified and essentially this creates the sampling frame.
The clusters are then randomly sampled but they may not represent the "entire" population.
What are open-ended survey formats?
Open ended questions do NOT have responses which require yes or no answers. They require thought from the respondent.
Ex: "Can you tell me about how you cope with stress at work?"
What are the advantages of open-ended survey formats?
The respondent is free to identify and elaborate on salient areas and are not restricted to the researchers preconceptions.
They provide broad, potentially novel information which could inform theory and/or generate new hypotheses.
What are the disadvantages of open-ended survey formats?
They are expensive, time consuming, they require coding, and you must establish inter-rater reliability.
What are closed ended questions?
Fixed response questions. Yes or no answers. Specific info. Numerical values or likert scales.
What are the advantages of closed ended questions?
They get specific info from participants. The items are pre-quantified, such as already assigned numerical values. You can get large data sets. Cost effective.
What are the disadvantages of closed ended questions?
They are very difficult to construct in psychometrically sound ways.
What is the Family Cohesiveness Scale (FCS)
Family cohesiveness: the subjective sense of unity, boundedness, and mutual love and respect among nuclear family members.
When wording questions what are some common pitfalls to avoid?
Leading questions, loaded questions, double-barreled and double negative questions.
What are some general rules when putting a survey together?
Group related/similar questions together. Place open ended questions before the closed ended ones. Move from general to specific questions and place personally sensitive questions at or near the end.
What are the advantages of face to face (in person) interviews?
They achieve higher response rates, facilitate establishment of rapport, enable standardized approach, interviewer can clarify any participant confusion.
But, they cost a lot!
Occurs when participants who declined to participate would have responded differently than participants did.
Introduces more error into population estimates.
Lower response rates don't appear to have this bias, but declining participation rates are concerning.
Many researchers offer incentive to encourage participation.
Assesses people's beliefs, values or attitudes about a topic.
Ex: Harris Poll or Gallus Surveys.
Asks about demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and other behaviours.
Primary goal of these surveys and others, is to determine the percentage of a sample that holds a certain view or reports a certain particular characteristic and then use the information to estimate the percentage of the broader population that has that particular attribute.
What are surveys often used for?
The sole or primary goal of testing hypotheses or exploring associations among variables, rather than reporting the percentage of a population that thinks they'll respond in a certain way.
Uses questionnaires and interviews to gather information about people. They gather many types of information and serve many purposes.
Refers to all the cases or observations of interest to us.
A subset of cases or observations from the population.
Ex: College students in a class are a sample of the college's student population.
A list of names, phone numbers, IDs, addresses, or other units, from which a sample will be selected.
Ex: Conducting a survey on the lifestyles of undergrads. There are 30,000 undergrads so conducting in-depth interviews isn't possible. So you'd ask the registar's office for a list of names and contact the currently enrolled students.
They are sometimes typically imperfect measures of populations.
What does the sampling frame represent?
The operational definition of the population.
Ex: Entire currently enrolled student body is the population, but the operationally defined population are the names on the registrar's list.
It reflects the important characteristics of the population.
The sample should very closely reflect the population you are comparing it to. If your sample has 30% Caucasians, 30% Latinos, 30% Asians and 40% Native Americans, then the population should have the same demographic percentages.
Also called a biased sample. It doesn't reflect the important characteristics of a population.
Ex: If your sample has 30% Caucasians, 30% Asians, 30% Latinos and 40% Native Americans but the population doesn't have the same percentages. It has 40% Caucasians, 10% Latinos, 30% Native Americans and 20% Asians. This is biased.
Survey Cooperation Rate
Represents the percentage of individuals, households, or other units who participate in the survey out of all those who are contacted.
Ex: 1,000 people selected. 900 are made contact with. 300 decline and 600 participate. It who were contacted.
The percentage of cases who participate in a survey out of all those who were selected to participate.
Ex: 600 of 1,000 selected people participated; 100 couldn't be contacted and 300 refused. Its who were selected to participate.
What are some common uses of survey data?
1) To describe the characteristics of a population. Who uses drugs, who has a disorder, who is republican vs. democrat.
2) To describe and compare the characteristics of different populations or different demographic groups within a population. What percent of people use drugs at a university, how do psychological disorders vary across ethnic groups.
3) To describe population trends. How has drug use changed over time, have disorders increased or decreased over time.
4) To describe relations among psychological variables, (self-reported) behaviours, and other characteristics. Are people's overall happiness and life satisfaction correlated with self-esteem or religiousness.
5) To test hypotheses, theories and models.
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