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A philosophy that focuses on educaton and the study of classical literature in order to understand human nature rather than religion.


A famous theorist of the Renaissnce. His book 'The Prince', written in 1513, showed the harsh rule of a determined Prince.

Leonardo da Vinci

(1452-1519) An Italian painter, sculpter, scientist, mathmatician, archiect, musician, and engineer of the Renaissance who is famous for works such as " The Last Supper" and the "Mona Lisa."


(1483- April 6th, 1520) An Italian painter known for his series of Madonna paintings, as well as the "School of Athens"


(March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) An Italian painter and sculpter famous for the "David" and most of all, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

Johan Gutenberg

The inventor of the printing press.He printed the first Bible using a movable block


A Dutch ordained preist and humanist who believed the church needed to reform,though he remained attached to it.

Jan van Eyck

A Flemish painter who used color to depict peasant life. He also painted religious works.

Charles V

The king of Frace who summoned Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms and eventuall outlawed him


Any Christian church that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation

Martin Luther

A German monk who spoke against the church's abuse. He wrote the 95 Theses, a list of arguments against the Catolic church. They were posted on Octobe 31st, 1517.

Justification by Faith (Salvation)

Being 'born again'; free from sin and promised eternal life in heaven


A pardon from punishment still due for a sin (Catholic church)

95 Theses

Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on Octobe 31, 1517.

Peace of Augsburg

The document signed by princes in Europe stating that each prince had the right to choose the religion of the region he ruled.

Priesthood of all believers

A doctorine that states all baptised followers of Christ are preists in the eyes of God.

Henry VIII

The King of England 1509-1547. He began the church of England

Anglican Church

The churh of Enland and all other churches connected to it.

John Calvin

(1509-1564) The founder of Calvanism. He also began the reform in Geneva


The belief that God predetermined who would go to heaven


A group of people who belived babies should not be baptised, and that only aduls can fully understand whats happening, meaning only adults should be baptised. They believed in the separation of church and state, and that women and all men are equal in impotance and allowed them in ministry


A goup of English Christians who followed strict rules of life. Pleasures are seen as sinful, and life is lived simply


A group of people who follow modified Calvanist beliefs

Catholic (Counter) Reformation

The period of Catholic revival from 1560- 1648

Council of Trent

A group of cardinals of the Romas Catholic Church called by Pope Paul III to address issues in the church tied to the Protestants


Members of a group of the Roman Catholic Church started on August 15, 1534, by Ignatius of Loyola. It is the largest male group of the Church


The investigation of heresy by bishops as directed by the Pope

Index of Prohibited Books

A list of books Catholics were fobidden to read due to their anti-Catholisism content.

Queen Elizabeth

The daughter of King Henry VIII, she became Queen of England September 7th, 1533 and ruled until March 24th, 1603. During herr rein, she estabised what would become the new (Protesant) Church of England.

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