102 terms

Psychology Midterm 2- Chapter 5

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Synesthesia
When a visual image has a taste
Sensation
The detection of physical stimuli and transmission of that information into the brain. Can be light, sound waves, temperature, food, odor
Perception
The brains further processing, organization, and interception of sensory information. Results in our conscious experience of the world
Sensory Stiumuli
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Sensory Receptors
Specialized cells in the sense organs
Somatosensation: Sensory Transduction
Translation of Stimuli. Process of converting energy (info) in the environment into energy (info) in the nervous system. Accomplished by specialized neurons called sensory receptors
Sensory Coding
When our sensory systems translate the physical properties of stimuli into patterns of neural impulses
Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies
The particular information represented by an action potential depends on which cell is firing
Rate Law
Variations in the magnitude of a signal are represented by the firing of the neuron
Absolute Threshold
Minimum intensity of stimulation
Difference Threshold (Also called Just Noticeable Difference)
Smallest difference between two stimuli that you could notice
Webers Law
States that the just noticeable difference between two stimuli is based on a proportion of the original stimulus rather than on a fixed amount of difference. That is, the more intense the stimulus, the bigger the change needed for you to notice.
Signal Detection Theory
Theory that states detecting a stimulus is not an objective process, but instead a subjective decision with two components
Response Bias
Participants tendency to report detecting the signal in an ambiguous trail
Hit
If the signal is presented and the participant detects it
Miss
If the participant fails to detect the signal
False Alarm
If the participant "detects" a signal that was not presented
Correct Rejection
If the signal is not presented and the participant does not detect it
Kinesthesis
The perception of body movements. It involves being able to detect changes in body position and movements without relying on information from the five senses.
Hearing
Audition
Sound Wave
The pattern of changes in air pressure during a period of time
Frequency
Determines pitch
Amplitude
Determines loudness
Eardrum
Marks the beginning of the middle ear. Membrane stretched tightly across the canal
Ossicles
Three tiny bones called hammer, anvil, and stirrup
Cochlea
A fluid-filled tube that curls into a snail-like shape, with a membrane at the end called the round window
Basilar membrane
Runs through the center of the cochlea
Hair Cells
Bend and send information to the auditory nerve. They are the primary auditory receptors
Auditory Nerve
Receives information from hair cells. Neural signals travel through here to the brain
Cochlear Implants
Small electronic device that can help provide sense of sound to a person who has a severe hearing impairment
Primary Auditory Cortex
Located in the temporal lobe. Once signals reach this area, you are able to hear sound
Temporal Coding
Used to encode relatively low frequencies, such as the sound of a tuba
Place Coding
Difference frequencies activate different receptors at different locations on the basilar membrane. Receptors are similar but located in different places
Vestibular Sense
Uses information from receptors in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. These canals contain a liquid that moves when the head moves, bending hair cells at the ends of the canal. Responsible for sense of balance
Tactile Stimulation
Anything that makes contact with our skin
Pain: Fast Fibers
Sharp, immediate pain
Pain: Slow fibers
Chronic, dull, steady pain
Olfaction
Smell. Has the most direct route to the brain
Olfactory epithelium
Thin layer of tissue is embedded with thousands of smell receptors. Each receptor is responsive to different odorants.
Olfactory bulb
Located just below the frontal lobes, this is the brains center for smell. From here, smell information goes to other brain areas.
Gustation
Sense of taste. Has job of keeping poison out of our digestive system while allowing food in
Taste Buds
Sensory organs mostly on the tongue but are also spread throughout mouth and throat. People have approximately 8000-10000 of these
Every taste experience is composed of a mixture of these five basic qualities
Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
Umani
Japanese word for savory or yummy
Super Tasters
People who have more taste buds due to underlying genetics than the average person, who experience intense taste sensations
Vision
Ability to see
Retina
The thin inner surface of the back of the eyeball.
Cornea
The eye's thick, transparent outer layer
Pupil
The dark circle at the center of the eye, is a small opening in the front of the lens.
Iris
A circular muscle, determines the eye's color and controls the pupil's size
Accommodation
Behind the iris, muscles change the shape of the lens. They flatten it to focus on distant objects and thicken it to focus on closer objects.
Lens
Transparent structure where light is bent further backwards and focused to form an image
Two types of receptor cells in the retina
Rods and Cones
Rods
Respond at extremely low levels of light and are responsible primarily page 183 for night vision. They do not support color vision or fine detail
Cones
Less sensitive to low levels of light. They are responsible primarily for vision under brighter conditions and for seeing both color and detail.
Fovea
Near the retina's center, cones are densely packed in this small region
Photopigments (Rhodopsin)
Protein molecules that become unstable and split apart when exposed to light
Ganglion Cells
The first neurons in the visual pathway with axons
isomerization
Only requires a single photon of light. Cis version of retinal to trans version of retinal
Opsin and retinal are synthesized from this
Vitamin A
Optic Nerve
Exits the eye in the back of the retina
Blind Spot
The point at which the optic nerve exits the retina has no rods or cones
Optic Chiasm
Where half of the axons in the optic nerves cross
Primary Visual Cortex
Cortical areas in the occipital lobes at the back of the head
Ventral Streams (What)
Appears to be specialized for the perception and recognition of objects, such as determining their colors and shapes.
Dorsal Streams (Where)
Seems to be specialized for spatial perception—determining where an object is and relating it to other objects in a scene
Trichromatic theory
Theory states that color vision results from activity in three different types of cones.
Short Wavelengths (S cones)
This cone is most sensitive to blue-violet light
Medium Wavelengths (M Cones)
This cone most sensitive yellow-green light
Long Wavelengths (L Cones)
This cone is most sensitive to red-orange light
Opponent Process Theory
According to this theory, red and green are opponent colors, as are blue and yellow.
Hue
Distinctive characteristics that place a particular color in the spectrum like the colors greenness
Saturation
The purity of the color
Brightness
Colors perceived intensity
Gestalt
German word for shape or form
Gestalt Theory
Theorized that perception is more than the result of accumulating sensory data. They postulated that the brain uses innate principles to organize sensory information into organized wholes
Proximity
We tend to group figures according to how close they resemble each other, whether in shape, color, or orientation
Similarity
We tend to group figures according to how closely they resemble each other, whether in shape, color, or orientation
Continuity
We tend to group together edges or contours that have the same orientation
Closure
We tend to close figures that have gaps
Illusory Contours
We sometimes perceive contours and cues to depth even when they do not exist
Reversible or ambiguous figures
Where you can see either a full face or two faces looking at each other—but not both at the same time. The figures periodically reverse (switch back and forth) as the visual system strives to make sense of the stimulation
Bottom up processing
Hierarchical sensory processing that relies only on information available in the sensory input
Top down processing
Hierarchical sensory processing that relies on prior knowledge of the properties of the object or events to be detected
Prosopagnosia
People who lack the ability to recognize faces but can recognize other objects
Fusiform Gyrus
Region in the right hemisphere that is said to be specialized in recognizing faces
Monocular (Pictorial) Depth Cues
Available from each eye alone and provide organizational information for top-down processing. We can recieve depth even with one eye closed
Occlusion
A near object blocks another object that is further away
Relative Size
Far off objects project a smaller retinal image than close objects do if they are both the same physical size
Familiar Size
Because we know how large familiar objects are, we can tell how far away they are by the size of their retinal image
Linear Perspective
Seemingly parallel lines appear to converge in the distance
Texture gradient
As a uniformly texted surface recedes, its texture continuously becomes denser
Position relative to horizon (Relative Height)
Objects that are closer to the horizon in the visual field appear father away
Cast shadows
If source of light is known, location of a shadow can provide information of objects location
Atmospheric Perspective
Distant objects look less sharp than nearby objects due too dust pollution we have to look through
Binocular Depth Cues
Are available from both eyes together and contribute to bottom-up processing.
Binocular disparity
Cue is caused by the distance between humans two eyes. Brain uses the disparity between the two images to compute distances to nearby objects
Convergence
Binocular depth cue. This term refers to the way that the eye muscles turn the eyes inward when we view nearby objects
Motion Aftereffects
May occur when you gaze at a moving image for a long time and then look at a stationary scene
Ponzo Illusion
The figure that makes two horizontal lines that appear to be two different sizes but are actually the same length
Ames Boxes
Inside these, rooms play with linear perspective and other distance cues
Color Blind
Someone who has partial blindness for certain colors