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Terms in this set (78)
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
2 main rivers of mesopotamia
the belief in only one god
the chief city of ancient Mesopotamia and capitol of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia
the early ancestors of the Jewish people
a Persian prophet, lived around 600 B.C. taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle if fought between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil, founder of Zoroasterianism
A family of languages that are spoken throughout the world today.
River in Egypt; gave life to the Egyptian desert; Biannual flooding; longest river in the world had cataracts or rapids; provided fertile soil
monumental architecture, from Ancient Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant
a system of writing using symbols or pictures
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader
First female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade
Ramses The Great
Egyptian Pharaoh he expanded the kingdom and built lasting temples at Karnak, Luxor, and Abu Simbel. He is often considered one of Egypt's greatest rulers.
Tomb of King Tut
Found in Egypt; filled with rooms of pottery; mummification; evidence of social stratification; beds, lamps, boats, chariots, jewelry, and board games.
earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.
Sir Arthur Evans
the British archaeologist who discovered the ruins of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete c. 1900 A.D.
Greek ancestors who settled Greece around 2000 BC
A war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia.
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was run like a military state. It often competed with Athens for dominance.
Literally means urule by the people". It is derived from the Ancient Greek work "Demo" meaning "people".
a group of immortal supreme beings who, according to ancient mythology, dwelt on Mount Olympus and ruled the world during ancient times.
people who, it was believed, could speak with the gods.
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC).
one of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations.
A series of wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire (5th century B.C.).
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
Legendary founders of Rome.
a people who inhabited early Ancient Rome.
Wars between the Romans and Carthaginians that marked Rome as the preeminent power in the eastern as well as the western Mediterranean.
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants. Most of his elephants and men perished in the Alps leaving him weak and easy to defeat.
Priestesses who tended to sacred fire in Rome. It was said that if the fire went out Rome would fall.
legions-basic unit of 4500 to 6000 soldiers. loyal, well-trained, disciplined, highly organized, though some soldiers were lazy and called in sick when it was time to fight.
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the Republic. This attempt failed and the Senate ended up being a group of yes men.
was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the Gauls in an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic War.
69-30 B.C. Ruler of Egyptian government in Alexandria who backed Caesar in the civil war he waged from 49 to 45 B.C.
Caesar's adopted son who defeated Mark Anthony for title of ruler of Rome after Caesar's death.
Aqueducts/ Roads/Building Projects
Things such as the Colloseum. Aquaducts supplied water for Rome, and the roads were used by the military for transport.
200 year period of peace in Rome.
amphitheater in Rome built about AD 75 or 80, Used by Emperord Titus Flavius to gain popularity with the people.
Indus Valley Civilization
civilization from 2600 BC-1900 BC; entire Indian subcontinent-peninsula; possibly had twin capitals called Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; well organized government
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
the predominant religion of India
A Hindu epic written in Sanskrit that describes the adventures of the king Rama and his queen
the force generated by a person's actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
"the untouchables" Had to do lowest tasks like cleaning the streets, etc. So ritually impure that standing in one's shadow was considered impure.
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
The son of an Indian prince, this man called himself Buddha or the "Enlightened One", tried to figure out how to end suffering. Became a begger. Buddhism was formed from his teachings.
a primitive man found near Beijing
In Daoist belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. One is associated with masculine, light, and active qualities while the other with feminine, dark, and passive qualities.
The earliest known Chinese writing is found on these from ritual activity of the Shang period.
fibers from silkworm cocoons provide threads for knitting
Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)
Warring States Period
the period from 475 BC until the unification of China under the Qin dynasty, characterized by lack of centralized government in China. It followed the Zhou dynasty.
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Ruler of China who united China for the first time. He built road and canals and began the Great Wall of China. He also imposed a standard system of laws, money, weights, and writing.
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century.
The unification of all Chinese states.
an ancient trade route between China and Europe
Peninsula of Southwest Asia between the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
The holy book of Islam
declaration of faith, praying, fasting, charity, and travel to Mecca and visit the Hajj. Five things that all Muslims believe.
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
first caliph after death of Muhammad
The 2nd Caliph. Friend of Muhammad.
third caliph; his assassination set off a civil war within Islam between the Umayyads and Ali.
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
this was an Islamic conflict to determine who was the successor of Muhammad (Ottoman/Safavid conflict).
caliph of Umayyad Dynasty, 661-680
members of the Sunni dynasty of caliphs that ruled a Muslim empire from 661 to 750