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106 terms

Cat Dissection

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animalia
what is the kingdom of the cat
chordata
what is the phylum of the cat
vertebrata
what is the subphylum
mammalia
what is the class
carnivora
what is the order
felidal
what is the family
felis
what is the genus
domestica
what is the species
hair and females's mammary glands to nourish young
what are the two main characteristics that distinguish mammals form other animals
dentition pattern
this is something an animal has that reveals its diet; looks at the types of teeth, number, arrangement, etc.
cat's dentition pattern
what does the sharp and point incisors and canines from front and premolars in rear indicate in a cat?
gait
how it walks
digitigrade
cat's gait; walks on digits with remainder of foot elevate
plantigrade
human walk; on entire side of foot
external nares
on the nose
pinnae
on ears, long, flexible extrernal fold that directs sound waves into extrnal auditory meatus
nicitating membrane
on eyes, greatly reduced, also called plica semilunaris
vibrissae
long sensory hairs on face, also called pini tactiles.
mammary papillae
placewghere female can nourish young
torus
thickened epidermis on bottom of foot into pads
pes
hindfoot
manus
forefoot
philtrum
lip
forelimb
humerus, ulna, radius, carpal, digits
hindlimb
femur, patella, fibula, tibia, etc.
antebrachium
from the wrist to elbow, forearm (radius and ulna)
brachium
part of upper arm or forelimb, elbow to shoulder
axilla a
armpit
cranial area
head with 11 bones
cervial area
7 bones, atlas, axis, permits movement and rotation of head
thoracic area
13 bones, prominent dorsal spines and art. costal facts
lumbar area
7 bones below thoracic
sacral
3 bones fused like man from pelvis
caudal area
21-35 extendign bones out of total from sacral
thigh
femur
shank
lower part of legs-shin (tibia)
flexion
sagittal plane that decreases angle of joint and brings 2 bones closre together
extension
movemnent that increases angle between 2 bones
adduction
movement of limb toward body midline
abduction
moveing limb away from midline,or medial plane, of body
supination
occurs when the forearm rotates laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly, and the radius and ulna rae parallel
pronation
forearm rotates edially so tath the palm faces posteriosly. brings radius across ulna so that the 2 bones make an x
circumduction
combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction. proxiamal end of limbs stationary, and its distal end movs in a circle.
pectoantebrachialis
lies as a narrow band across the top of the chest. it originates on sternum and instrets on ulna.
pectoalis major
anterior portion lies beneath the pectoantebrachialis. arises also on sternum and insterst sopon huyemerus. helps to pull
pectoralis minor
largest of pecs, lies postertior pectoralis major
xiphihumeralis
lies most posterior to pec groups. originates on xiphoid process and inserts on humerus with pect major and latissimus dorsi.
clavobrachialis
most anterior muscle of shoulder and arm
external oblique
covers ventral and lateral abdominal surfaces. originates from lumbodorsal fascia and inserts on aponeurosis along mid-ventral area. flexes vertebral column, rotates trunks and bends it laterally
internal oblique
second layer of abdominal muscles connecting with aponeurois sunder external oblique. flexes vertebral column and bends trunk
rectus abdominus
lies in mid ventral area and lies as 2 parallel muscles. extend from pubis to insert on upper ribs adn vertebra., lie between internal oblique 's aponeuros and tranverse abdominus. flexes vertebral column
latissimus dorsi
mainly on dorsal surface, but can also be on lateral ventral sdide. flat, broad, triangular muscle covering lateral surfacee of body. gives humerus great power for pulling backwards when cat is running
pec minor largest in cats and they have 4 pec muscles while we have 2
what are 2 differences btwn cat and human in pectorals group
masseter
most prominent muscle on lateral surface of face. used for chewing
temproalis
other muscle for chewing dorsal to masseter. originates on sides of skull and inserts on mandible
clavobrachialis
most anterior of shoulder and arm muscles.
sternomastoid
large v shaped band of muscle on ventral and lateral surfaces of neck
cleidomastoid
lies lateral to sternomastoid.enables cat to flex head and bend it
sternohyoid
two bands of muscle tissue run along mid ventral line. orignaiates in sternumad insters on hyoid cartilage of neck
sternothyroid
lies deep to sternohyoid and lateral to it
digastric
v shaped, extends from occipital bones to mandible and lowers jaw
mylohyoid
fibers of this mucle run transversely btwn digatric in mid ventral are. pass deep to digrastric and raises floor of mouth
clavobrachialis (clavodeltoid)
most anterio muscle in shoulder, originates at clavicle, and inserts on ulna. continuation of clavtrapezius. works with it to extend humerus, turn head, and flex elbow
epitrochlearis
thin superficial muscle on medial surface of humerus. originates from ventral border of latissimus dorsi. inserts by thin aponeurosis on lower forelimb. acts with triceps brachii as extensor of elbow. not in human
triceps brachi
three heads, long head is partially visible, extends forearm
brachialis
anterior to lateral head of triceps. arises fof humerus and inserts on ulna, flexes elbow
antebrachiaal fascia
covers muscles of lower forelimb, tough layer of fascia
brachioradialis
most anteiror of these muscles, origina on humerus and insertion radis. rotatses it and supinates paw
etensor carpi radialis longus
inserts on second metacarpal and extends forefoot.
extensor digitorum communis
long muscle whose tendon divides at wrist and attaches to digits, which it extends
extensor digitorum laterialis
long muscle of lower forelimb, inserts on digits and extends them
extensor carpi ulnaris
inserts on fifth metacarpal
flexor carpi ulnaris
origin is at hdistal humerus and inserts at carpals-flexes writs and adducts hand
palmaris longus
adjacent to flexor carpi ulnaris, moves medially, flat muscle oriiginates on jumerus and inserts on phalanges.
brachioradialis
long, narrow band-like muscle that passes along medial border of forearm.
flexor carpi radialis
origin on humerus and inserts on metacarpals, extends manuys of wrist
pronator teres
origin on bottom of humerus and inserts on raidal shaft, pronates manus at wrist
external jugular vein
receives blood from skin and muscles of head
anterior facial vein
colelcts blood from face, tongue, etc
posterior facial vein
arisis from region of internal maxillary. collects blood from masseter and temporal muscles
transverse jugular vein
short but prominent vein that crosses the midline and unites with external jugular vein.
iliopsoas
small portion at insertion of femur, muscle arising from lumbar vertebral and illum
pectineus
narror muscle similar to adductor longus; posterior to femoral artery and vein
adductor femoris
anterior to gracilis; originates from pubis and inserts femur
semimembranosus
located beneath gracilis, posterior to adductor longus and femoris
sartorius
occipies anterior half of thigh; flat and broad that inserts on tibia and fibula; adducts and rortates thigh adn extends it
gracilis
2nd medial superficial thigh; covers posterior portion of miedial thigh; adducts
gastrocnemius
major muscle of calf; has two heads and inserts on calcaneues. extends foot
soleus
deep to gastrocnemius; originates on fibula and inserts on calcaneus; extends foot
achilles tendon
long, tough, anterior to calcaneus
tibialis anterior
covers anterior portion of lower hind leg; originates on tibia and insenrts by meands of tendon. extends and inverts foot
flexor digitorum longus
lies on medial aspect of lower hind leg next to tibia. arises from it and inserts on phalanges. flexes digits.
adductor longus
narrow muscle similar to adductor femoris. belongs to adductors of thigh
gluteus medius
originates primarily from the ilium, last sacral and first caudal vertebrae to insert on the greater trochanter; abducts thigh
lumbodorsal fascia
connects the latissimus dorsi to its origins on the thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, as well as the iliac crest
acromiotrapezius
arises on the middorsal line of the neck and thorax and inserts on the metacromion and spine of the scapula) adducts the scapula
caudofemoralis
smaller muscle just anterior to the biceps femoris
semitendinosus
anterior to semimembranosus
clavotrapezius
arises from the back of the skull and middorsal line of the neck and inserts on the clavicle. Its action is to extend the humerus in a forward direction.
spinodeltoid
arises from the scapula spine and inserts on the proximal portion of the humerus
spinotrapezius
arises from the spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae and inserts on the fascia covering the scapular muscles. Its action is to adduct the scapula and pull it posteriorly
clavodeltoid
It arises from the acromion process of the scapula and inserts on the spinodeltoid muscle.
gluteus maximus
muscle immediately anterior to the caudofemoralis
biceps femoris
lies posterior to the tensor fascia latae and fascia lata. It is a very broad and thick muscle which arises from the ischium and inserts from the patella to the middle of the shaft of the tibia by means of a wide aponeurosis.
acromiodeltoid
posterior to the clavodeltoid. It arises from the acromion process of the scapula and inserts on the spinodeltoid muscle.
pectoantebrachialis, xiphihumeralis, trapeziuses, deltoids, lumbodorsal fascia, adductor femoris
what muscles do cats have that humans don't?