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AP Terms 1-4 Exam
Terms in this set (64)
An extremely subtle, sophisticated, or deceptive argument.
• Example: All lawyers have a reputation for being aggressive. John is a lawyer; therefore, John
must be aggressive.
Cause and effect argument
These claims argue that one person, thing, or event is the reason another
thing or event occurs.
Explains the meaning of something
Used for showing both sides of an argument
Much like doing an experiment in science; it is the explanation of methodology.
- careful about avoiding danger or risk
relating to, or suggestive of a conspiracy
-designed or intended to teach
-not having the mind or feelings engaged
- having or showing knowledge that is gained by studying
- characterized by openness, candidness, and forthrightness
- bursts of energy
- tending to excite anger, disorder, or tumult
carrying a lesson
strict, literal, or excessive conformity to the law or religious code or moral code
-of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior
- treat with an apparent kindness that betrays a feeling of superiority
inclined to be silent or uncommunicative in speech
- calling for immediate attention
The omission of a word or passage necessary for a complete syntactical construction, but not
necessary for understanding.
• Example: "Did he...peacefully?" she asked. The Dubliners by James Joyce
The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with
the objects or actions
• Example: "He saw nothing and heard nothing but he could feel his heart pounding and then he
heard the clack on the stone and the leaping, dropping clicks of a small rock falling." Ernest
a figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or hidden comparison between two things that
are unrelated, but which share some common characteristics
• Example: "Life is a journey, but don't worry, you'll find a parking spot at the end."
a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it
is closely associated
• Example: When people refer to a figure representation instead of the actual title, for example: the
crown in place of the king,
a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth.
• Example: "War is peace." "Freedom is slavery." Ignorance is strength." (George Orwell), 1984)
A phrase, often explanatory or qualifying, inserted into a passage with which it is not
grammatically connected, and marked off by brackets, dashes, etc.
The repetition of initial consonant sounds or any vowel sounds within a formal grouping, such as
a poetic line or stanza, or in close proximity in prose
• Example: "No one standing in this house today can pass a puritanical test of purity that some are
demanding that our elected leaders take."
• The act of making an indirect reference to something.
• Example: "This place is like a Garden of Eden." - This is a biblical allusion to the "garden of God"
in the Book of Genesis.
It refers to the repetition of a word or words in successive clauses in such a way that the second
clause starts with the same word which marks the end of the previous clause.
• Example: Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.
a stylistic device used in literature and poetry to intentionally eliminate conjunctions between the
phrases and in the sentence, yet maintain the grammatical accuracy.
• Example: We prayed, we begged, we pleaded, we were ignored
a figure of speech that uses an exaggerated or extravagant statement to create a strong
emotional response. As a figure of speech it is not intended to be taken literally. It is frequently
used for humor.
• Example: The boy was dying to get a new school bag.
the deliberate repetition of the first part of the sentence
• Example: We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall
fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the
air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall
fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the
hills. We shall never surrender. -Winston Churchill
A figure of speech putting two extremely contrasting things together in order to create emphasis
• Example: Seriously funny or Awfully pretty
sharply or bitingly critical, sarcastic, or ironic in temper, mood, or tone
markedly short and abrupt or blunt in manner or speech often to the point of
feeling or showing extreme discouragement, dejection or depression
exhibiting an aloof objectivity usually free from prejudice or self-interest
not partial or biased: treating or affecting all equally
person knows her own weaknesses and shortcomings and isn't afraid to point them
out, often in a humorous way.
Appeal to Authority
When a fallacy is assumed correct due to the statement being made by a person with good
repute or reputation.
the use of informal words, phrases or even slang in a piece of writing
• Example: "Ya'll come back now, ya hear?"
A narrative that serves as an extended metaphor. They are written in the form of fables, parables,
poems, stories, and almost any other style or genre. The main purpose being to tell a story that
has characters, a setting, as well as other types of symbols that have both literal and figurative
• Example: Animal Farm by George Orwell
Demonstrating a comparison between two examples.
The rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or
sentences (as in "action, not words" or "they promised freedom and provided slavery)
• Example: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." - Neil Armstrong
An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole,
The act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present
• Example: John Donne commands, "Oh, Death, be not proud."
A structure of writing where the grammatical pattern is used in various sentences to show two or
• Example: "We real cool. We left school. We lurk late. We strike straight" Gwendolyn Brooks
Statements that distract the reader with various appeals instead of using sound
- A type of argument where both sides are acknowledged as the writer agrees and disagrees
with different aspects of the argument.
(of a remark or reference) working by suggestion rather than explicit mention.
- showing or feeling no interest, enthusiasm, or concern.
an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; skepticism
- arrogantly superior and disdainful.
(of an action or situation) likely to arouse or incur resentment or anger in others.
grimly mocking or cynical.
- the state or quality of being serious and dignified.
- A sentence that contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause
using subordinate conjunctions: when, because, after, etc.
A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses using coordinate
conjunctions; for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
- An idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning
The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word
A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt
when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing
The fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect (like the
prison and the rosebush in Scarlet Letter.)
A figure of speech employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation
seem less important than it really is
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