KIN Exam 2
Terms in this set (113)
When you want to change a behavior that you do, the first step is to...
Identify a Target Behavior
An isolated behavior that is the specific focus of any behavior change program.
Examples of target behaviors
Beginning to exercise, quitting smoking, starting to floss, wearing a seatbelt, reducing binge drinking, eating more fruits and veggies.
What Drives Behavior Change?
The confidence to believe you can change
Change must come from within
The belief in one's ability to take action and perform a specific task.
Locus of Control
The figurative "place" a person designates as the source of responsibility for events in his/her life.
Internal locus of control
You are in control
External locus of control
Other factors control your life
Which type of Locus of Control helps drive behavior change???
Other Tools for Change
Identify barriers and overcome them
Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change
Precontemplation - Not considering change in the next 6 months
Contemplation - Seriously considering change in the next six months
Preparation - Planning change in the next 30 days
Action - First 6 months of change
Maintenance - Changed for more than 6 months
The taking in and utilization of nutrients
3 steps of nutrition
6 classes of essential nutrients
-Carbohydrates, protein, & fat
-Vitamins & minerals
-4 Calories per gram
-4 Calories per gram
-9 Calories per gram
Digested along different sections of the gastrointestinal tract
HCl and gastric lipase really start to break down macronutrients in the stomach
Most digestion occurs in the small intestine
What should my diet look like?
Protein = 10-35% of daily calories
Carbohydrates = 45-65% of daily calories
Fat = 20 - 35%, 10% saturated, of daily calories
The primary function of dietary carbohydrate
To supply energy to body cells
Carolic value of carbohydrates
Two main types of carbohydrates
Simple (one or two sugar units/molecule)
Complex (more than two sugar units/molecule)
-225-325 grams based on a 2000 calorie intake/day
-AMDR recommends 45-65% of total daily calories
What is the simplest form of carbohydrates?
Whole grains have higher nutritional values compared to refined carbohydrates in:
Fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds
Whole grains (unrefined carbs) take longer to chew and digest, resulting in:
making people feel full sooner
entering the bloodstream more slowly
reducing the possibility of overeating
slower rise of blood sugar
a measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels
Foods with a high glycemic index cause...
quick and dramatic rise in blood sugar levels
Diets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked to...
increased risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as increasing caloric intake
High fiber foods and unrefined carbohydrates tend to have...
a lower glycemic index
the term for nondigestible carbohydrates that are intact in plant sources
the term for nondigestible carbohydrates has been isolated or synthesized in a lab and then added to food as a supplement.
Fiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides...
bulk for feces, assisting with bowel elimination
Types of fiber
Soluble (viscous) fiber: slows the body's absorption of glucose, binding cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestines
Insoluble fiber: binds with water, allowing fecal matter to become bulkier and softer
Sources of Dietary Fiber
All plant food contain fiber; however, fruits, legumes, and oats contain higher amounts
RDA for Fiber
38 grams for adult men
25 grams for adult women
Key to building body's structural components
-Muscles, bones, blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones
Compound of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen
Composed of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential
Foods that supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts
-Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy
foods that supply most but not all essential amino acids
-Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts
Two or more incompletes that together supply all the essential amino acids
Recommended protein intake
0.8 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight daily to prevent deficiencies
Endurance athletes = 1.2 - 1.4 g/kg
Resistance and strength-training athletes = 1.2 - 1.7 g/kg
10-35% of total daily calories
The following foods provide about the same amount of protein as 1oz (7g) of meat:
-¾ c yogurt
-½ c cooked legumes
-¼ c cottage cheese
-2 Tbsp peanut butter
-¼ c soy beans
-¼ c tofu
-1 c regular or soy milk
-1 oz cheese
-1/3 c mixed nuts
Also known as lipids
Supply energy, provide insulation, and support and cushion organs
Absorb fat-soluble vitamins
Types of fats
*Single double bond
*Multiple double bonds
Fatty acid molecule
Trigyceride = glycerol + 3 fatty acids
Fats recommended intake
-17 g of linoleic acid and 1.6 g of alpha-linolenic acid
-12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linolenic acid
For total fat is 20-35% of total calories
Fats & health
Studies have examined the role of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease
Most Americans consume more saturated fats than trans fats, both of which can raise LDL (low density lipoprotein/bad cholesterol) Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholesterol levels and have a number of heart healthy effects
-Omega-3 and 6
In addition to heart disease risk, dietary fats from red meat can raise the risk of cancer, especially colon cancer
Formed during the hydrogenation process to solidify liquid fats
-One hydrogen is added on each side of the double bond, as opposed to cis-fatty acids, where two hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond
-Allows more fats to be packed closer together
Trans fat provides...
stability, shelf life, plasticity to foods
Trans fat elevates...
levels of LDL (low-density lipoproteins, "bad cholesterol") and lowers levels of HDL (high-density lipoproteins, "healthy cholesterol")
-Together, increases risk for coronary heart disease
organic (carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in body cells.
Types of Vitamins
fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K)
water-soluble (C and the eight B-complex vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid)
Sources of Vitamins
Vitamins are abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains; they are also added to some processed foods
norganic (non-carbon-containing) compounds needed in small amounts for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions
There are about ___ essential minerals
Major minerals (those that the body needs in amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include:
calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride
Essential trace minerals (those needed in small amounts) include:
copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc
The human body is composed of about 60% water; you can live only a few days without water
Water is used in digestion and absorption in food and is the medium for most chemical reactions that take place in the body
Women need to drink about 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid per day
Men need to drink about 13 cups (3.7 liters) of fluid per day
How is water lost everyday?
through urine, feces, sweat, and evaporation
substances that protect against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to molecules
chemically unstable, electron-seeking compounds that can damage cell membranes and mutate genes in its search for electrons
Many fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants such as...
vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids
Antioxidants also fall into a broader category of phytochemicals, which are...
substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseases
Some populations face special dietary challenges, including:
Women lacking nutrient-dense foods, calcium, iron
Men needing more fruits, vegetables, grains
College students should improve overall quality of food choices
Older adults need nutrient-dense foods, fiber, vitamin B-12
Athletes need increased energy and fluid requirements
People with special health concerns should discuss this with their physician or dietitian
Need to consume at least enough calories to maintain resting metabolic rate, or the energy required to maintain vital body functions such as:
Respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure
Accounts for 60-70% of daily energy expenditure
Energy to digest food =
10% of energy expenditure
Physical activity =
20-30% of energy expenditure
US Department of Health and Human Services has reported that 68% of American adults are...
considered overweight or obese
Obesity has increased from 13.4% in 1960-62 to 35.1% in 2005-06 in U.S. adults age...
Obesity is associated with...
over 112,000 deaths due to cardiovascular disease, over 15,000 deaths due to cancer, and over 35,000 deaths due to non-cancer, non-cardiovascular disease causes per year
Additional cost of being obese is...
$1,429 (42%) more than normal-weight individuals
12.4% of children age two to five and 17% of children age six to 11 are
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Level of nutrient intake to prevent deficiencies and reduce risk of chronic disease
RDA, AI, UL
Appropriate intake for 2,000 calorie diet
Vegetarian food pyramid
Fats, oils and sweets - use sparingly
Milk, yogurt and cheese group - 0-3 servings daily
Dry beans, nuts, seeds, eggs and meat substitutes group - 2-3 servings daily
Vegetable group - 3-5 servings daily
Fruit group - 2-4 servings daily
Vegetarian Diets and Health lower in
Vegetarian Diets and Health higher in
Vitamins C and E
Vegetarian Diets and Health concerns
Sources of Iron
Legumes (1.7 to 3.3 mg iron per half-cup serving)
Enriched ready-to-eat cereals (2.1 to 18 mg iron per 1-ounce serving)
Whole grains (0.4 to 1.4 mg iron per half-cup serving)
Soy products (2 to 3.4 mg iron per half-cup firm tofu; 1.4 to 1.6 mg iron per 1-ounce fortified veggie "meat")
Pumpkin and squash seeds (8.5 mg iron per quarter-cup serving)
Dried fruit (0.9 to 1.1 mg iron per quarter-cup serving)
Baked potato with skin (1.9 mg iron per medium potato)
Sources of Calcium
-Bok choy (79 mg per half cup)
-Broccoli (31 mg per half cup)
-Collard greens (133 mg per half cup)
-Kale (47 mg per half cup)
-Okra (62 mg per half cup)
-Turnip greens (99 mg per half cup
Calcium-set tofu (120 to 430 mg per half cup)
Figs (68 mg per five dried figs)
Soybeans (88 mg per half cup)
Tempeh (92 mg per half cup)
Calcium-fortified foods (300 to 350 mg per cup orange juice; 200 to 350 mg per cup soymilk; 55 to 1,000 mg per ounce ready-to-eat breakfast cereal)
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk products
Alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation, in situations that do not put yourself or others at risk
Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups
See pg. 249, Eating Strategies for College Students
Dietary challenges for college students
On campus - not cooking
Healthy food is more expensive
Never ending buffet at your fingertips
Strategies you can use:
Deciding what you're going to eat beforehand
Pay attention to portion size (control)
Eat a colorful diet
Eat breakfast (starts metabolism)
Choose healthy snacks
Choose beverages with care
Build a meal with whole grains and vegetables
Choose leaner portions of proteins
Ask for gravy/sauce on the side
Broth/tomato-vegetable based soups
Croutons, dressing, cheese sabotage salads - leave out
Sources of Energy in the Diet
Alcohol - not an essential nutrient but does supply energy
Nutrition Facts are based on the Daily Values
Daily Values are based on a 2,000 or 2,500 Calorie diet
May contain powerful bioactive chemicals
-Most will do nothing
-Few will do what they claim
-Some will be harmful
Not regulated the way drugs are by the FDA in terms of testing and manufacture
-Handled more like the FTC handles marketing claims
1 lb = 3,500 kcal
Safe weight loss = _____ lbs per week
Safe Weight Loss
It is recommended that you lose at most 1% of your body weight per week
-Translates to= 0.5-2 lbs per week
1 lbs of fat= 3,500 Calories
-0.5 lbs of fat per week= 250 cal per day deficit
-1.0 lbs of fat per week= 500 cal per day deficit
-1.5 lbs of fat per week= 750 cal per day deficit
-2.0 lbs of fat per week= 1,000 cal per day deficit
Factors Contributing to Excess Body Fat
"Genetics studies have shown that...
the particular set of weight-regulating genes that a person has is by far the most important factor in determining how much that person will weigh. The heritability of obesity—a measure of how much obesity is due to genes versus other factors—is about the same as the heritability of height."-Newsweek, 2009
body shape, body size, body fat distribution, the ease in which weight is gained and metabolic rate
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)-the energy required to maintain vital body functions such as respiration, heart rate, body temp, blood pressure
What determines RMR?
Gender: men have a higher RMR-why?
Weight loss/Weight gain
Hormones play a role in the accumulation of body fat and contribute to the location of fat placement on the body.
Hormonal changes occur frequently in women: puberty, pregnancy, menopause
a hormone produced by fat cells that indicates the degree of hunger to the brain in order to control the storage of body fat.
Sometimes conditions that cause an endocrine (hormonal) imbalance can attribute to...
excess body fat such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
-Change in family structure
-Eating on the go
-Food labels: interpreting info correctly -Underestimation of serving sizes
Sedentary lifestyle (more time at computers)
Decrease in PE requirements in schools
As rates increased in the United States, so has the prevalence of health conditions, including:
CVD, hypertension, certain forms of cancer, type 2 diabetes, premature death
Moderate weight loss can...
have a significant positive impact on health
A weight loss of just 5-10% can...
reduce the risk of these conditions in obese individuals
Strategies for Successful Weight Loss
Do some research
Diet books, weight-loss programs such as Weight Watchers, dietitians and personal trainers
Adjust the energy balance equation by first increasing physical activity
Keep a food journal
Decrease calorie intake by no more than 250-500 calories per day
Pay attention to portion sizes
Avoid crash diets
Set up rewards for success
the mental representation a person holds about her or his body
It consists of self perceptions, media images, thoughts, attitudes, and emotions
negative body image
characterized by dissatisfaction with body in general or some part of the body in particular
Different cultures have different...
ideas of the "ideal" body type
Describes behaviors used to keep body weight low but are not severe enough to make someone seriously ill
Example: Not eating after sunset
Describes severe disturbances in body image and eating behaviors
Specific diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IVlAffect about 10 million American females and 1 million males
Characterized by intense fear of gaining weight
Strategies to avoid gaining weight: fast completely, eliminate all but 1 or 2 foods, restrict total calories to only a few per day
Deadliest Psychiatric Disorder in Females 15-24 years old
Characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by a compensatory behavior known as "purging" (>2xwk)
Strategies to avoid gaining weight: vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, enemas and exercise
Begins in adolescence (11-12 years) or older (40-60 years)
Research suggests that about 5% of college-age women have bulimia
an eating disorder characterized by uncontrollable eating without any compensatory purging behavior
Affects about 2% of American adultslCommon eating patterns are:
-Eating very rapidly
-Eating until uncomfortably full
-Eating when not hungry
This is usually followed by feelings of guilt, shame, and depression
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Excessive concern over a perceived defect in his or her physical features
Obsession over a specific feature or several features
-Distorted body imagel
Can lead to depression, anxiety, other psychological disorders
It is estimated that 1-2% of the world's population meet all the diagnostic criteria for BDD
Treating Eating Disorders
Must address both problematic eating behaviors and the misuse of food to manage stress and emotions
Averting a medical crisis by restoring adequate body weight
Dealing with psychological aspects
Stabilizing eating habits
Changing behavior patterns and thoughts
Possibly involving medication and/or hospitalization
If you know someone...
-Talk to them out of love and concern, not judgment or frustration.
-It can take weeks, months and years for someone to recover, it is a slow, difficult and worthwhile process.
-Also speak to the individuals family-yes, they will probably be angry with you, but it is worth it.
-Find out how you can support the individual, remember they are much more than an eating disorder.
-Learn about the eating disorder and become familiar with signs and symptoms.