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Christopher Columbus

Believed he had discovered a western passage to Asia but actually discovered America

The Dutch

First European settlers of the Hudson River Valley

Vasco da Gama's discovery of a route to India

proved profitable because he came back with spices and made a LOT of money


prosperity of nation depended on large supply of gold or silver

Phillip II of Spain

Most Catholic King

Treaty of Tordesillas

signed in 1494 established a line of territories between Portugal and Spanish territories

John Cabot

explored the New England coastline for England

the Middle Passage

journey of slaves from Africa to America

Ferdinand Magellan

explorer that circumnavigated the globe

Balance of Trade

difference between nation imports and exports over time

James I of England

believed in the idea kings receive power from God and are only responsible to God


system of government in which a ruler holds all power

Edict of Naples

gave the Huguenots the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges

William Shakespeare

Elizabethan literature

Thirty Years War

England only one not involved

Rump Parliament

Cromwell got rid of everyone that did not support him so this was what was left

Glorious Revolution

invasion of England by William of Orange

John Locke

his ideas were the basis of Constitution and Declaration of Independence

Nicholas Copernicus

First to argue that Sun was the center of universe

Isaac Newton

Law of Motion

Francis Bacon

inductive reasoning

John Locke

people were molded by their experiences


universe was like a clock

Jean Jacques Rousseau

entire society agrees to be governed by general will

Treaty of Paris in 1763

Great Britain became worlds greatest colonial power


first to grant recognition to the new America

Treaty of Paris 1783

granted Americans control of western territory from Appalachians to Mississippi River

Tennis Court Oath

a vow to continue to meet until they had a French consitution

Louis XVI

forced to accept decrees because thousands of armed women captured him and his family

Sans culottes

Ordinary patriots without good clothes

Committee of Public Safety

given power to defend France from threats

Napoleons Grand Empire

French Empire, dependent states and allied states

Duke of Ellington

defeated Napoleon

Third Estate

Not exempt from the taille

Civil Code

Most important of 7 legal codes from Napoleon

Napoleons bureacracy promoted

based on ability, not rank

Russians defeated Napoleons Grand Army

retreating and burning their own villages and countryside

Industrial Revolution

began in Great Britain

Queen Victoria

reflected British feeling of national pride

Charles Dickens

showed the poor life

Cotton Cloth

first industry affected by Industrial Revolution

Factory labor systems

workers had regular hours and did the same thing over and over

Britains most valuable product

Cotton cloth


belief that people should be free from government

Confederate States of America

started when Lincoln became President

Natural Selection

central to organic evolution

James Watt

developed steam engine


Sigmund Freud

Second Industrial Revolution

steel, chemicals, electricity

Karl Marx - proletarial

working class

Czar Nicholas II Legislature


Theory of Relativity

if all things disappear, time and space would disappear


buildings should be useful

Marie Curie

discovery of radium

Direct Rule

local elites were removed from power

Result of Japans war with Russia

forced to recognize Japan as great power

Black Hand

group that conspired to kill Francis Ferdinand

Western Front

trench warfare

Central Powers

Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottaman Empire

Red Secret Police

a red terror campaign to destroy opposition

Treaty of Versailles

treaty signed with Germany that they felt was harsh

France's approach to peace

desire to control Germany's colonies

World War I

Total War

German submarine warfare

caused US to join Allies in WW I

Article 231

Germany and Austria responsible for War

League of Nations

US did not join the League of Nations


government that aims to control citizens

Enabling Act

Allowed Hitler to ignore the constitution


Nazi rampage against Jews


strong central governmet lead by a dictator

Germans accepted Hitler and Nazis

belief Hitler had ended economic depression


signed nonaggression pact with German


dropped atomic bomb to end WW II


given to Hitler in NW Czechoslovakia

Britain and France declared war on Germany

two days after Hitler invaded Poland


tanks supported by airstrikes

December 7, 1941

attack on Pearl Harbor

Battle of Midway

turning point of the war in the Pacific


Nazi strike forces that killed innocent Jews with their infamous "death squads"


Member of the Warsaw Pact

Marshall Plan

restore economic stability after WW II

Fear about communism after

China became communist

Sputnik I

Soviet Union was ahead of US in production of missiles

Bay of Pigs

US attempt to overthrow Cuban government that failed

Red Scare

Joseph McCarthy

Kent State University

students killed by National Guard

Berlin Wall

prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Germany

Charles de Gaulle

French investing in nuclear weapons to gain world power


improved relationship between US and Soviet Union


had a weak farming system and corrupt government

North American Trade Agreement

establish trade between US, Canada and Mexico


restructuring movement by Gorbachev

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