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92 terms

World History - 9th grade

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Christopher Columbus
Believed he had discovered a western passage to Asia but actually discovered America
The Dutch
First European settlers of the Hudson River Valley
Vasco da Gama's discovery of a route to India
proved profitable because he came back with spices and made a LOT of money
Mercantilist
prosperity of nation depended on large supply of gold or silver
Phillip II of Spain
Most Catholic King
Treaty of Tordesillas
signed in 1494 established a line of territories between Portugal and Spanish territories
John Cabot
explored the New England coastline for England
the Middle Passage
journey of slaves from Africa to America
Ferdinand Magellan
explorer that circumnavigated the globe
Balance of Trade
difference between nation imports and exports over time
James I of England
believed in the idea kings receive power from God and are only responsible to God
Absolutism
system of government in which a ruler holds all power
Edict of Naples
gave the Huguenots the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges
William Shakespeare
Elizabethan literature
Thirty Years War
England only one not involved
Rump Parliament
Cromwell got rid of everyone that did not support him so this was what was left
Glorious Revolution
invasion of England by William of Orange
John Locke
his ideas were the basis of Constitution and Declaration of Independence
Nicholas Copernicus
First to argue that Sun was the center of universe
Isaac Newton
Law of Motion
Francis Bacon
inductive reasoning
John Locke
people were molded by their experiences
Voltaire
universe was like a clock
Jean Jacques Rousseau
entire society agrees to be governed by general will
Treaty of Paris in 1763
Great Britain became worlds greatest colonial power
France
first to grant recognition to the new America
Treaty of Paris 1783
granted Americans control of western territory from Appalachians to Mississippi River
Tennis Court Oath
a vow to continue to meet until they had a French consitution
Louis XVI
forced to accept decrees because thousands of armed women captured him and his family
Sans culottes
Ordinary patriots without good clothes
Committee of Public Safety
given power to defend France from threats
Napoleons Grand Empire
French Empire, dependent states and allied states
Duke of Ellington
defeated Napoleon
Third Estate
Not exempt from the taille
Civil Code
Most important of 7 legal codes from Napoleon
Napoleons bureacracy promoted
based on ability, not rank
Russians defeated Napoleons Grand Army
retreating and burning their own villages and countryside
Industrial Revolution
began in Great Britain
Queen Victoria
reflected British feeling of national pride
Charles Dickens
showed the poor life
Cotton Cloth
first industry affected by Industrial Revolution
Factory labor systems
workers had regular hours and did the same thing over and over
Britains most valuable product
Cotton cloth
Liberalism
belief that people should be free from government
Confederate States of America
started when Lincoln became President
Natural Selection
central to organic evolution
James Watt
developed steam engine
Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
Second Industrial Revolution
steel, chemicals, electricity
Karl Marx - proletarial
working class
Czar Nicholas II Legislature
Duma
Theory of Relativity
if all things disappear, time and space would disappear
Functionalism
buildings should be useful
Marie Curie
discovery of radium
Direct Rule
local elites were removed from power
Result of Japans war with Russia
forced to recognize Japan as great power
Black Hand
group that conspired to kill Francis Ferdinand
Western Front
trench warfare
Central Powers
Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottaman Empire
Red Secret Police
a red terror campaign to destroy opposition
Treaty of Versailles
treaty signed with Germany that they felt was harsh
France's approach to peace
desire to control Germany's colonies
World War I
Total War
German submarine warfare
caused US to join Allies in WW I
Article 231
Germany and Austria responsible for War
League of Nations
US did not join the League of Nations
Totalitarian
government that aims to control citizens
Enabling Act
Allowed Hitler to ignore the constitution
Kristallnact
Nazi rampage against Jews
Facism
strong central governmet lead by a dictator
Germans accepted Hitler and Nazis
belief Hitler had ended economic depression
Russia
signed nonaggression pact with German
Truman
dropped atomic bomb to end WW II
Sudetenland
given to Hitler in NW Czechoslovakia
Britain and France declared war on Germany
two days after Hitler invaded Poland
Blitzkrieg
tanks supported by airstrikes
December 7, 1941
attack on Pearl Harbor
Battle of Midway
turning point of the war in the Pacific
Einsatzgruppen
Nazi strike forces that killed innocent Jews with their infamous "death squads"
Poland
Member of the Warsaw Pact
Marshall Plan
restore economic stability after WW II
Fear about communism after
China became communist
Sputnik I
Soviet Union was ahead of US in production of missiles
Bay of Pigs
US attempt to overthrow Cuban government that failed
Red Scare
Joseph McCarthy
Kent State University
students killed by National Guard
Berlin Wall
prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Germany
Charles de Gaulle
French investing in nuclear weapons to gain world power
detente
improved relationship between US and Soviet Union
Brezhnev
had a weak farming system and corrupt government
North American Trade Agreement
establish trade between US, Canada and Mexico
Perestroika
restructuring movement by Gorbachev