HASS Exam Year 9

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What is a biome?
Biomes are sometimes referred to as ecosystems. Biomes are places that share a similiar climate and life forms.
What are the five distinct biomes across Earth?
-Forest
-Desert
-Grassland
-Tundra
-Aquatic
Why are grasslands important?
Grasslands are the most useful biome for agriculture because the soils are generally deep and fertile. They are ideally suited for growing crops or creating pasture for grazing animals.
What are some characteristics of grasslands?
-a grassland biome is dominated by grass and generally has few or no trees .
-they are found in temperate and tropical areas.
-the rainfall is between 250mm and 900 mm per year.
What are grasslands used for?
Grasslands have been used for livestock grazing and are increasingly under pressure from urbanisation.
What major food grains are grown in a grassland biome?
-corn
-wheat
-oats
-barley
-millet
-rye
-sorghum
Why is it that so little of grasslands remain in Australia?
Since European settlement, most native grassland has been removed or changed by farming and other development. Vast areas of grassland were cleared for crops, and introduced grasses were planted for grazing animals such as sheep and cattle.
What are wetlands?
Wetlands are biomes where the ground is saturated, either permanently or seasonally.
What are some reasons why wetlands are important?
-wetlands are a highly productive biome
-they provide important habitats and breathing grounds for a variety of marine and freshwater species.
-important nesting place for migratory places
-a natural filtering system and help purify water or filter out pollutants before they reach the coast.
-regulate river flow and stabilise the hotline
What 4 things do all wetlands have?
-sea grass
-tidal flats
-mangroves
-salt marsh
What are seagrass meadows?
-are covered by water all the time
-bind the mud and provide shelter for young fish
-produce organic matter, which is consumed by marine creatures.
What are tidal flats?
-covered by tides most of the time
-are exposed for short periods of the day (low tide)
-forced by silt and sand that has been deposited by tides and rivers
-provide a feeding area for birds and fish
What are mangroves?
-have pneumatophores that trap sediment and pollutants from the land and sea
-change shallow water into swampland
-store water and release it slowly into the ecosystem
-have leaves that decompose and provide a food source for marine life
-provide shelter, breeding grounds and a nursery for marine creatures and birds
What are salt marshes?
-covered by water several times per year
-provide decomposing plant matter which is an additional food source for marine life
-have high concentrations of salt
What are the benefits of coral reefs?
-source of food for people:(
-protect coastlines from storms, erosions
-provide habitats and nursery grounds for fish
-source of new medicines
-
What are some threats to coral reefs?
-contamination by fossil fuels
-global warming
-predators such as crown of thorns starfish
-urban development which increases erosion
-tourism; people on boats or dropping anchors
What is the difference between a fringing reef and a barrier reef?
A fringing reef grows upward from a volcanic island that has sunk entirely below se level, an atoll is then formed. A barrier reef when is growing is separated from land by an expanse of water. This creates a lagoon of open, often deep water between the reef and shore.
What are main major classification groups?
-wetlands and rivers
-savanna
-seagrass meadows
-old-growth forest
-desert
Why is soil important in different biomes?
Soil is important in determining which plants and animals inhabit a particular biome.
What are the major influences on climate?
The major influences on climate are the geographical features of the Earth's surface, such as mountain ranges and latitude.
Why is climate a major influence on biomes?
Temperature and rainfall patterns across the Earth determine what plant and animal species can survive in a particular biome.
What is biosphere 2?
Biosphere 2 is a research facility in the Arizona Desert, and has been designed to investigate Earth's life systems.
What are some examples of staple foods?
-oats
-rice
-fruits
-potatoes
-root vegetables
-beans
What is the best staple food?
-wheat
-maize
-fish
What is biofuel?
Fuel that comes from renewable sources
Why is wheat a good staple food?
It can be stored for a long time.
Why is fish a good staple food?
The oceans provide an irreplaceable, renewable source of food and nutrition essential to good health.
Who are the hunters and gathers?
The San people are the hunters and gathers.
What so The San people do?
The San are experts at finding water and tracking animals. The men hunt antelope and wildebeest, while the women hunt small game such as lizards, frogs and tortoises, and gather roots, berries and grubs.
Where do The San people live?
The San people live in the Kalahari desert in Southern Africa.
Where do the Bedouin live?
Bedouins are nomads who live mainly in Syria, Iraq, Jordan, the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, and the Sahara.
What animal do the Bedouin need to survive?
-the camel provides and transports milk.
-the camel's meat can be eaten.
-camel poo is used as fuel
-camel hair is made into rugs and tent cloth.
Where do the Huli people live?
The Huli people live in rainforests of the Papua New Guinea.
How do the Huli people live?
The Huli clear a patch of rainforest and plant crops of sweet potato, sugar cane, corn, taro and green vegetables. When the soil of the garden no longer produces good crops, a new patch of rainforest is cleared, leaving the old one to recover naturally. The garden crops are supplemented by food that the men have hunted.
What are the three main traditional people?
-the Huli people.
-the Bedouin people.
-the San people.
In what ways did we increase the crops?
-increased agricultural inputs
-more intensive use of land
-the spread of improved crop varieties
What is the Green Revolution?
The Green Revolution was a result of the development and planting of new hybrids of rice and wheat, which saw greatly increased yields.
How do we modify soils?
Fertilisers are organic or inorganic materials that are added to soils to supply one or more essential plant nutrients.
How do we modify landscapes?
-land can be flattened
-steep slopes terraced or stepped
-wetlands drained
-creating new land from seas, rives or lakes
What are the different farm types in Australia?
-extensive farming of sheep or cattle
-wheat farms
-mixed farms
-intensive farming
-plantation farming
What is some information of extensive farming?
-rainfall less than 250 millimetres
-lard farms covering big square kilometres
-use helicopters or vehicles for mustering
What is some information of wheat farming?
-warm summers & cool winters
-rainfall of 500 millimetres
-open grassland
-land is flat
-
What is some information of mixed farming?
-small in scale
-closer to markets in wetter areas
What is some information of intensive farming?
-close to urban centres
-produce high value foods
-land is expensive
-small area
What is some information of plantation farming?
-warm, well watered tropical places
-produce high value food
Why is rice an important food?
Rice is an important food as most of the world relies on it. Rice feeds half of the world.
What are some factors affecting rice production in Asia?
-climate and topography
-irrigation
What are the reasons rice cannot be planted?
-poor production management
-losses caused be weeds
-pests and diseases
-irrigation water
-alkalinity
What are some factors affecting rice production in Australia?
-climate and topography
-sowing and irrigation
-pests and diseases
How do indigenous Australians see the land?
The land is where they come from and the land is where they will return
How did Indigenous Australians move across the land.
Entry to another nation's or clan's lands is by ceremony and negotiation, a practice still commonplace today, recognising the important relationship that Indigenous Australians have with their country
What are some factors that influence a trip?
-uncertainty about when the next bus or train will arrive
-weather conditions
-familiarity with the journey.
How did most Australians view war in 1914?
-fun
-exciting
-a time to seek adventure
-a chance to travel
Where were the main places Australians fought in world War I?
-gallipoli
-sea
-the middle east
-the eastern front
Why was Gallipoli the place to fight?
-Turkey could be defeated and Austria-Hungary would be threatened
-Greece, Bulgaria and Romania would be persuaded join the Allies
-supplies could be shipped through the Dardanelles
What happened July 28th 1914?
War was decleared
What happened in 1905?
Russia looses war to Japan.
What happened August 1st 1914?
Germany declares war on Russia.
What happened August 3rd 1914?
Germany declares war on France. The Germans also attack France using the schillifer plan.
What is the definition of Milliterism?
The belief that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
What is the definition of natalisim?
Patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
What is the Schlieffen plan?
The schlieffen plan was for the German's to to go Belgium to get to France.
Why did the Germans go through Belgium?
The Germans went through Belgium as it was a neutral country.
How did the Schlieffen plan fail?
Belgium has strong resistance such as;
-steep hills
-barb wire in ocean
-lots of guns/machine guns
-3 thousand bullets per second
What is the definition of Imperialism?
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.
How did World War 1 start?
It started from the long term affects which is
M = militarism
A = alliances
N = natalisim
I = imperlisim
The short term affects include assassination.