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81 terms

The Brain (New)

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cerebrum
this part of the brain is the largest
cerebrum
this part of the brain contains integration centers for receiving and interpreting sensory information
generating and controlling muscle movements
providing mental functions (such as memory, intellect, creativity, and reasoning)
cerebellum
this part of the brain is the second largest part
cerebellum
this part of the brain contains integration centers that coordinate and fine tune voluntary muscle movement.
diencephalon
this part of the brain is the physical center of the brain
diencephalon
this part of the brain contains relay and integration centers for incoming sensory information
integrates nervous system and endocrine system
brain stem
this part of the brain is the trunk of the brain
brain stem
this part of the brain connects parts of the brain to the spinal cord
contains integration centers that regulate visceral activities
brain tissue
THIS is protected in 3 ways:
cranial bones
cranial meninges
cerebral spinal fluid
cranial meninges
this part of brain tissue had 3 membrane layers that surround the brain
it is continuous with the spinal meninges
cranial meninges
this is made up of dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
dura mater
this is made up of endosteal and meningeal layer
endosteal
this layer of dura mater is the outer layer that forms the inner periosteum of the cranium
meningeal layer
this layer of dura mater is the inner layer that forms the dural sinuses, collects veins located between 2 layers, and collects cerebrospinal fluid and returns it to the blood
arachnoid mater
this layer of cranial meninges is made up of arachnoid membrane and arachnoid trabeculae
arachnoid membrane
this part of arachnoid mater is the epithelial layer
arachnoid trabeculae
this part of arachnoid mater extends across the subarachnoid space to the pia mater
pia mater
this layer of the cranial meninges is the iner layer that holds cerebral blood vessels in place
arachnoid granulations
these are parts of the cranial meninges that are extensions of arachnoid layer into the dural sinuses. It forms an opening for CSF to drain into dural sinuses
dural folds
these are folds of dura mater that extend deep into the brain.
Function:
separate both parts of the brain
anchors and supports the brain in the cranium
contains the dural sinuses that collect CSF and return it to the blood
ventricles
these are a series of interconnecting chambers in the brain that are connected to the central canal of the spinal cord, which contains a choroid plexus
choroid plexus
this is a lining of ependymal cells that secrete CSF
lateral
this ventricle contains 1 and 2
it is located in each cerebral hemisphere
it is the largest ventricle
third
contains 3
located in diencephalon
fourth
contains 4
located in brainstem
connects with cerebral canal of the spinal cord
brain stem
this is the "trunk" of the brain
it connects all parts of the brain to the spinal cord
it contains integration centers that manage autonomic activities
brain stem
this is made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
medulla oblongata
this part of the brain stem is the most inferior part of the brain
it is a continuation of the spinal cord at the foramen magnum
it contains many integration centers for maintaining homeostasis
medulla oblongata
this part of brain stem contains relay stations. reflex centers. and integration centers
relay station
this function of the medulla oblongata contains all ascending and descending spinal tracts that pass through it.
it relays sensory information and motor information between the spinal cord and brain
opens into the 4th ventricle
reflex centers
this function of medulla oblongata divides into two categories: cardiovascular and respiratory
cardiovascular
this reflex center of the medulla oblongata controls the rate and force of the heart contractions
respiratory
this reflex center of the medulla oblongata controls the rhythm of breathing
integration center
this function of medulla oblongata processed sensory and motor commands that innervate the throat, neck, back, and digestive organs.
pons
this part of brain stem is the anterior buldge and is superior to the medulla
it contains relay and integration stations
relay station
this function of the pons relays information between the cerebellum, brain stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord
integration centers
this function of the pons controls sensory and motor controls of the jaw and face.
respiratory centers
this part of the integration centers of the pons modifies the activities of the respiratory center of the medulla
midbrain
this part of the brain stem is the most superior and it connects to the diencephalon
functions are relay station, reflex center, retircular activating system,
relay station
this function of the mid brain controls descending tracts that relay voluntary motor commands from the cerebral cortex to PNS or cerebelllum
reflex center
this function of the midbrain initiates reflex movements of the eyes, head, neck, and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimuli.
reticular activating system
function of midbrain maintains consciousness and awakening by alerting the cerebral cortex of incoming stimuli
cerebellum
this part of the brain contains integration centers that coordinate and fine tune voluntary muscle movements
functions in adjusting postural muscles and fine tuning movement
adjusting postural muscles
this function of cerebellum receives information from proprioceptors and visual and tactile receptors and the inner ear and coordinates rapid, autonomic adjustments that maintain balance and posture
fine tunes movements
this function of cerebellum refines learned movement patterns by:
monitoring motor commands form the cerebral cortex and brain stem
comparing this motor information with propiocentric info
making adjustment to ensure smooth movements
ataxia
this is a disturbance in muscle coordination. it is the result of trauma, stroke, or chemical interference to cerebellum. this causes twiches and a lack of coordination
diencephalon
this is the part of the brain that is the main relay and processing center of the brain
it relays and processes all incoming sensory info and integrates nervous and endocrine system
three parts:hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus
epithalamus
this is the roof of the diencephalon and third ventricle that contains a choroid plexus.
this houses the pineal gland
pineal gland
this is an endocrine gland that secretes melatonin
melatonin
this is a hormone that regulates the sleep and wake cycle
thalamus
part of diencephalon that forms the wall of the diencephalon.
this is the final relay station for sensory impulses arriving along ascending tracts of spinal cords
thalamic nuclei
this is a part of the thalamus that filters incoming sensory info and relays it to appropriate regions of the cerebral cortex for further processing
hypothalamus
this part of the diencephalon forms the floor of the diencephalon and regulates cardiovascular and respiratory centers of the pons and medulla
regulates body temperature and controls reflexive responses to emotions as a part of the limbic system
controls concious and unconcious behavior
integrates the nervous and endocrine system
infondibulum
this connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland
mamillary bodies
this process of olfactory sensations
it controls reflexes of chewing, licking, and swallowing
cerebrum
this part of the brain is the origin of concious throughts and intellectual functions
it processes sensory info
generates somatic motor commands to skeletal muscles
contains processing centers for receiving and interpreting sensory, generating and controlling muscle movements, providing higher mental functions
cerebrum
this part of the brain is divided into right and left hemisphere.
longitudinal fissure
divides cerebrum into left and right cerebral hemispheres by a deep groove
lobes
each hemisphere of longitudinal fissure is divided into this
gyri
folds in the lobes
sulci
shallow grooves that separate the gyri
cerebrum
this part of the brain is made up of both gray and white matter
white matter
this type of matter makes up most of the cerebrum
it is located deep to the cortex
it consists of myelinated axon fibers
composed of three types of axon fibers (association, commissural, and projection)
association fibers
this type of axon fiber are interconnected areas of a single hemisphere. such as lobes or gyri
commissural fibers
this type of axon fiber interconnect the two hemispheres (corpus callosum and anterior commisure)
projection fibers
this type of axon fiber connects cerebrum with lower brain structures
gray
this type of matter is found in 2 general areas (cerebral cortex and basal nuclei)
cerebral cortext
gray matter that is superficial covering. this is where all high level integration occurs
basal nuclei
this type of gray matter in cerebral hemispheres
coordinates the unconcious skeletal muscles.
repeats patterns of movement
controls stabilizing muscles of the trunk
primary sensory cotex
this part of gray matter receives sensory information from the thalamus
it passes info to other association areas before motor responses are generated
primary motor cortex
this part of gray matter initiates motor impulses to voluntary skeletal mucles
central sulcus
this divides the hemispheres of gray matter into anterior and posterior sections
association areas
these parts of gray matter are located in the various lobes of the cortex
frontal lobes
this lobe contains the primary motor cortex
it controls higher intellectual processes
parietal lobes
this lobe contains the primary sensory cortex
it interprets speech and controls the selection of words to express thought and feelings
occipitial lobes
contains the visual cortex that intreprets visual sensations from the retina of the eye.
temporal lobes
this lobe contains auditory cortex and olfactory cortex
auditory
this cortex of temporal lobe interprets auditory sensations from the ear
olfactory cortex
this cortex of the temporal lobe interprets odor sensations from the nasal cavity
limbic system
this is a functional group of nueli and tracted
located along borders of the cerebrum and diencephalon
influences endocrine system
fucntions;
establishing emotional states
links concious with unconcious
memory storage
motivational system
another name for limbic system
responsible for emotions of fear, pain, rage, pleasure